Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Fuel – Latin or Teutonish?

Today’s word of murky upspring is fuel.

The Oxford Dictionary Online (ODO) has:
fuel, from Old French fouaille, based on Latin focus ‘hearth’ (in late Latin‘fire’)

Online Etymology has:
fuel, early 14c., from Old French foaile "bundle of firewood", from Vulgar Latin legal term *focalia "right to demand material for making fire", neuter plural of Latin focalis "pertaining to a hearth", from focus "hearth" 

Wiktionary gets a little nearer with:
fuel, Old French fouaille, from feu (“fire”) … but then goes down the same path with feu from Latin focus (“hearth”), replacing Latin ignis (“fire”)

Rooted on focus? I think not. On the Teutonish word for fire? Much more likely! 

Let’s see what Kluge has to say about the root of fire
MidHG. viur, OHG. and OLG. fiur, older fuir, n.; comp. Du. vuur, AS. fyr (from *fuir), n., E. fire; a word common to West Teut. for ‘fire’: … comp. OIc. … furr, m., and fyre, n., ‘fire’. The r in all the words is a suffix, and fu … the root … p86, Feuer

We know that the French -aille is in English -al or -el. We also know that the French ou is a ū sound as in vous. The Teut. root is fu. Thus the French spelling of a Frankish/Teutonish root for fire would be *fou or *feu (See German Feuer). Now add the ending -aille and voilà: fouaille.

There was no need to twist and bend Latin focus into feu when there was already a Frankish/Teutionish root fu.

Mail – Latin or Teutionish?

Today’s word of murky upspring is mail.

The Oxford Dictionary Online (ODO): 

mail, (also denoting the individual metal elements composing mail armor): from Old French maille, from Latin macula ‘spot or mesh’

Online Etymology pretty much has the same thing:
mail, "metal ring armor," c.1300, from Old French maille "link of mail, mesh of net," from Latin macula "mesh in a net," originally "spot, blemish," on notion that the gaps in a net or mesh looked like spots.

The word mail has two meanings in English from two otherly roots. Both come thru French. One, the mail we send each other, is said to hav West Germanic roots. Okeh.

The other “armor made of metal rings or plates, joined together flexibly” is given as: from Old French maille, from Latin macula ‘spot or mesh’.

A spot? Well, now. Is there a Teutonic root meaning spot that is nearer to maile than the Latin macula? Let’s look at the root of German Mal. From Kluge (Mal, p224) we get: 

Mal (1.), n., ‘mark, spot’, from MidHG. mal, n., ‘spot’, OHG. *mal in the compound anamali, ‘spot, scar’; identical with MidHG. and OHG. mal, ‘period, point’ … Its primit. kinship with Goth, mail, n., ‘spot’, is uncertain, yet Mal has at all events assumed the meaning of Goth, mail, which is normally represented by OHG. and MidHG. meil, n.; to this corresponds AS māl, whence E. mole.

Bosworth-Toller links AS māl ‘spot, mark, mole’ (also ‘an action, suit, cause’) to Goth. mail ‘spot, blemish’ and OHG meil. There is also OE mæle ‘spotted, markt’.

So we can eathly see that there is a Teutonish root much near in sound and spelling to OF maille than the Latin macula.

Trouble – Latin or Teutonish?

Today’s word of murky upspring is trouble.

Trouble, the Oxford Dictionary Online (ODO) has: 

trouble, Middle English: from Old French truble (noun), trubler (verb), based on Latin turbidus

Online Etymology has:
trouble, early 13c., from Old French trubler (11c.), metathesis of turbler, from Vulgar Latin *turbulare, from Late Latin turbidare "to trouble, make turbid", from Latin turbidus

Is it truly rooted on Latin turbid? True enuff that the staf r often moovs about in a word (that’s the metathesis). Take thru from Old English þurh (thurh). The r and the u hav swappt spots. However, might there be a Frankish/Teutonic root?

Let's look at the German Trübal, n., ‘affliction,distress’, from MidHG. trüebesal, OHG. truobisal; an abstract of trüben. — Kluge, p369.

Going further:
trübe, adj., ‘turbid, gloomy, dull, dim’, from MidHG. truebe, adj. (truobe, adv.), OHG. truobi, adj., ‘obscure, gloomy, dull’ allied to trüben, ‘to darken, tarnish, cast a gloom over’, MidHG. trueben, OHG. truoben, ‘to darken, sadden’. Comp. AS. drōf, ‘dirty, troubled’, Du. droef, ‘dull, sad’, Goth, drōbjan, ‘to confuse, lead astray, excite commotion’, AS. drēfan, ‘to disturb, agitate, trouble’. In the non-Teut. languages there are no certain cognates of the Teut. root drōb, ‘to confuse’. 
Trübsal, n., ‘affliction,distress’, from MidHG. trüebesal, OHG. truobisal; an abstract of trüben. — Kluge, p369

Then there is Trübel, m., ‘confusion, trouble’, Mod HG. only, from Fr. trouble

I don't know the root of the Norwegian and Swedish words (trøbbel and trubbel). They may also be from the French … or they may not. 

The meanings of English trouble and German Trübal are more aline'd with each other than with Latin turbid. Isn't it more likely that the French trouble is from a Frankish root or other Teutonic root like OHG truobi? Thus, I don’t think there was any "metathesis" needed, the word likely alreddy stood in Frankish.

Monday, November 25, 2013

Old English Latinates – Part Two

Warning: Simplified and/or fonetic spelling ahed!

Owing to the length of the list, it is split into two. This is Part Two E thru Z. Part One is here.

This is a qwick list of Old English (OE) words borrow'd from Latin (mostly church Latin from Greek) and Greek (most thru church Latin) words. Some of these are erly Germanish/Teutonish meaning that they were borrow'd well before the Saxons came to what is now England and are gemean (common) to the G/T tungs. Even the words that are "up in the air" as to whether they truly came from Latin or not, are here. There is a sunder deal below for a few words that hav the G/T root shared with Latin.

Things to keep in mind. Nearly every shire said words otherly, thus there was no ONE way to say the words:

  • the staf c was both k and, in Late West Saxon (LWS) speech, ch … thus circ = kirk and church … portic could be portik (portico) or portich (porche)
  • the  sc could be sk or LWS sh
  • the g () could be hard like get (OE etan) or soft (much like todayʼs y in year (OE ear) 
  • The vowels are a mess …
  • ā often became todayʼs ō but sometimes ei or ī 
  • æ is like the a in ash or ā but NOT ē (see)… however the long ǣ often became todayʼs ea … rǣswung, rēsung, rēsong ‘reasoning’
  • eo is itʼs own mess … e, ee, eu, o, u … 
  • the y is like the German ü or oo; the long ȳ often became todayʼs long ī but not always

Todayʼs English notes another way of spelling than does OE. Shortly after the Norman-French Takeover, English practically stoppt being a written tung for nearly 100 years. Sore few wrote anything in English. When written English did once again come out, it took on many of the spelling ways (orthography) of French. Not only did English take some of the French ways of spelling but often took the French spelling of the word itself! Later, in the 1500s and 1600s when Latin rule'd the roost so to speak, many words were edspelt (respelt) to match up the the Latin root (some mistakenly so, such as putting the s into iland for island and the c in sithe for scythe). Thus OE sicor (ME siker, sikur), from Latin securus, was edspelt secure. Same word, same meanings.

Best way to note this list is to note your browserʼs find and look for the word and do it more than once.

Part Two E thru Z


English (if one) – OE – meaning [Latin/Greek root] … marks


earfe f, – vetch, tare [L. ervum]

elecampane – eolone f. – elecampane, horseheal [from medieval Latin enula hĕlĕnium (from Greek helenion ‘elecampane’) + campana likely meaning ‘of the fields’ (from campus ‘field’)] … Elene, Helen

elehtre, electre f. – lupine [L. electrum, from Greek ēlektron ‘amber, electrum’]

elephant – elp, elpend, elpent m. – elephant [from Latin elephantem, Greek elephas, elephant- ‘ivory, elephant’] … Today’s spelling likely from Latin
> elpendban – ivory (elephant bone)
> elpendtoþ – ivory (elephant tooth)

elm – elm m. – elm, elm-tree  [¿Lating ulmus?, more likely Teutonish, akin to German dialect Ilm, and Swedish and Norwegian alm, Danish elm, Old Norse almr, Old High German elme from the ur-Teut. *elmaz, mayhap from the IE root *el-, *ol ‘red, brown’ and thus a cognate with Latin ulmus, Old Irish lem. However, Kluge holds that German Ulme is from the Latin word.
> ulmtrēow n. – elm tree

esol m., esole f. – ass [Teutonish, O. Sax. esil, m: Dut. ezel, m; Ger. MHGer. esel, m: OHGer. esil, m: Goth. asilus, m: Slav, osilu. L. asellus] … IE root? see ass abuv

exodus – exodus m. – exodus, a going out [church Latin exitus, from Greek exodos, from ex- ‘out of’ + hodos ‘way’]

exorcist – exorcista m. – exorcist, a caster out of ghosts [church Latin exorcizare, from church Greek exorkismos, from exorkizein, from ex- ‘out’ + horkos ‘oath.’ The word first meant ‘conjure up or command an evil spirit’]


false – fals I. adj. – false II. n. – falsehood, fraud, counterfeit. [Teutonish, OFrs. falsk, falsch: Ger. falsch, m. n: MHGer. valsch, m: Icel. fals, n; likely from Latin falsum ‘fraud’, neuter past participle of fallere ‘deceive’]
> ¿akin? fælsian – to expiate, condition, cleanse, purify

fan – fan, fann f. – winnowing fan [from Latin vannus ‘winnowing fan’]

fem – femne, fæmne f. – female, woman, damsel, maid [Teutonish, OSax. fémea, féhmia, f: Frs. fæm, f: OFrs. famne, fomne, femne, fovne, fone, f: Icel. feima, f; likely from Latin femina ‘woman’ or an IE root meaning to suckle]

fenestra – fenester n? m? – window  [from Latin fenestra ‘window’]

fennel – finul, finugl m., finu(g)le – ‘fennelʼ [from Latin faeniculum, diminutiv of faenum ‘hay’]

ferule – ferele f. – rod [from Latin ferula ‘giant fennel, rod’, whence also ferula]

fever – fēfer mn. – fever [Teutonish, Ger. fieber, n: MHGer. vieber, n: OHGer. fiebar, n: Dan. feber, m. f: Swed. feber, m: ¿from? or akin to L. febris] … Anglo rooted word was hriþ. Liken also OE befian ‘shake, tremble, be moovd’

fiddle – fiþele f. – fiddle [Teutonish, Plat. fidel, f; Dut. vedel, veel, f: Ger. fiedel, fidel, f: MHGer. videle, videl, f: OHGer. fidula, f: Dan. fiddel, m. f: Icel. fiþla, f: unknown upspring but likely akin to M. Lat. fidula, vidula: Lat. fĭdes, f. a string, guitar.]

fīfele f. – buckle [L. ‘fibulaʼ] ?

fig – fīc m. – fig, fig-tree: (fig-disease), venereal ulcer, hemorrhoids [from Latin ficus ] … spelling inflow'd by Old French figue

flail – fligel m? n? – ‘flail’ [Teutonish, mayhap rooted on Latin flagellum ‘whip’, diminutiv of flagrum ‘scourge’  or the Teut. root flah ‘to flay’ (OIc. flā ‘to flay’)]

flask – flasce, flaxe f. – ‘flask’, bottle [Teutonish,  Plat. flaske, f: Dut. flesch, f: Ger. flasche, f: MHGer. vlasche, vlesche, f: OHGer. flasca, f: Dan. flaske, m. f: Swed. flaska, f; Icel. flaska, f; M. Lat. flasca, fiasco] … OED calls late Latin flasco, flascon-, of unknown origin while wikt calls it from ur-Teut. from *flaskǭ ‘braid-covered bottle, wicker-enclosed jug’. ¿From Latin? Looks more like Latin borrow'd from G/T.

flýtme f. – fleam (blood-letting instrument) [mayhap from late Latin phlebotomum or phlebotomia, from Greek, from phleps, phleb- ‘vein’ + -tomia ‘cutting.’]? 

foca m. – a cake baked on the harth, OE hylsten [likely from Latin focus ‘harth’] … whence also today’s focus. However, the ur-Teut. root for fire is *fu (whence Ger. Feuer, Eng. fire). The OE word for focus was fustra.

font, fount, fountain – fant, font m. – font, fount, fountain, spring [from Latin fons, font- ‘a spring’]
> fant / font-fæt n. – a font-vat, the font for baptism
> fant / font-wæter – springwater, fountain, font, fount

fork – forca, force f. – fork [likely Latin furca ‘pitchfork, forked stick’]

formelle f. – bench [L. formella]

fosse – fossere m. – spade [from Latin ‘fossorium’, from fodere ‘to dig’]

full – fullian – to full or make white, baptize [mayhap from medieval, low Latin fullare, rooted on Latin fullo ‘fuller’, of unknown upspring … liken Latin infula ‘to cleanse clothes’, fulgare ‘to shine’, and Greek phalos ‘white’; however, B-T writes that it is: A word of doubtful origin. See also that fullian (Teut. root) means to fulfill, make perfect. This would answer for baptize and make white as whose who are baptiz'd, being fulfill'd with God, are often wearing white robes. ]
> fuller – fullere m. – fuller 


gabote f. – side-dish [L. gabata]

gem – gimm (y) m. (occl. nap. gimme) – ‘gemʼ, jewel, dearworth stone; (skaldic) sun, star. [Latin gemma ‘bud, jewel’]

giant – gīgant m. – giant [L. gigantem, from Greek gigas, gigant-] … here the other g () in gīgant (īant) is like y … thus we say 'gī(y)ant; liken OE ent, eoten, eten and ONrs jötunn [jotun]

gloss – glesan – to gloss [L. glossa, from Greek glōssa ‘word needing explanation, language, tung’]

grade – grād m., grāde f. – step, grade, degree, rank [from Latin gradus ‘step’ ]

graþul – gradual, antiphon [from medieval Latin gradualis, from Latin gradus ‘step’. The first witt of the adjectiv was ‘arranged in degrees’; the noun refers to the altar steps in a church, from which the antiphons were sung.]

graph – græf n? – style, stylus for writing [likely from L. graphium, from Greek graphion ‘stylus, writing implement’ … however, grafan, græfan means to grave, engrave which is Teut. … mayhap blend of the two.]

grammar – grammatic, grammatisc – grammatical, of grammarHe leornode grammatican cræft [Teutonish, OHG gramatich, from Latin grammaticus, from Greek grammatikē (tekhnē)‘(art) of letters’ from gramma, grammat- ‘letter of the alphabet, thing written’]
> grammaticere m. –  grammarian — Grammaticeras and rim-cræftige þegnas [OHG graniatichare]


heretic, heretical – eretic – heretical [Latin from Greek hairetikos ‘able to choose’ (in church Greek, ‘heretical’), from haireisthai ‘choose’] … Anglo word for heretic, schismatic was sliten

history – istoria – [thru Latin, from Greek historia ‘finding out, narrativ, history’, from histōr ‘learned, wise’, from an IE root share'd by wit]

hymele f. – hop plant [L. humulus]

hymn – ymen m. – hymn, sacred song [from Latin hymnus, from Greek humnos ‘ode or song in praise of a god or hero’, noted in the Septuagint to set sundry Hebrew words, and hence in the New Testament and other Christen writings.]

hyacinth, jacinth – iacinctus, iacintus m. – jacinth [from medieval Latin iacintus, from of Latin hyacinthus, for any of many plants linkt with the bloom in the myth of Hyacinthus]


idol – īdol n. – idol [Latin idolum ‘image, form’ (noted in church Latin in the sense ‘idol’), from Greek eidōlon, from eidos ‘form, shape’]

imp – impa m., impe f. – graft, shoot, scion, imp [mayhap from Low Lat. impotus ‘a graft’; Gr. μφυτος ‘engrafted’, or straightway rooted on Greek emphuein ‘to implant’. or ur-Teut *impōną, *impitōną (“to graft”) ( whence OHG impfōn). Akin to Danish ympe, German Impf, Swedish ymp. Kluge writes: … only OHG. impitôn can be explained as directly borrowed from a Lat. horticultural term … p157, impfen]
> impian – to 'imp', implant, graft
> geimpian – busy oneself with, introduce, mingle

inch – ynce m. – inch, [L. uncia ‘twelfth part,’ from unus ‘one’ (likely denoting a unit).]

insignia, seal, signet – insigle, insegel, insegl, insaegel, insaegl, inseil n. – seal, signet, insignia [Teutonish, Frs. in-sigel, -sigil a seal : Icel. inn-sigli a seal, a seal-ring; also the wax affixed to a deed : OHGer. in-sigili sigillum, signaculum, lunula, annulus, moneta : Ger. in-siegel … mayhap from Latin sigillum ‘small picture’, diminutiv of signum ‘a sign’, however Kluge states: nor is it known how OHG. insigili is related to Lat. sigillum … p335, Siegel]
> inseglian (æ) – to seal 
> inseglung f. – sealing, seal
> beinsiglian – to seal up


kaiser – Cāsere (Cāser) m. – Cæsar, emperor [todayʼs spelling from German]
> cāserdom m.  –imperial sway.
> cāserlic – imperial
> cāsern, cāseren f. – empress [ -en fem ending]

kettle – cetel, cetil, citel m. – kettle, cauldron [Teutonic origin, likely from Latin catillus, diminutiv of catinus ‘deep container for cooking or serving food’. In Middle English the wordʼs shape was inflow'd by Old Norse ketill .]

kitchen – cycene f. – kitchen [erly Teutonish, akin to Dutch keuken and German Küche, from Mid. Latin cucina, rooted on Latin coquere ‘to cook’


lake – lacu f. – a lake, pool, pond [mayhap from Latin lacus ‘basin, pool, lake’ (Skeat says straight from Latin and not thru French), however there is much room to think it may akin to but not from Latin. B-T writes: It might be supposed that lacu was taken from Latin lacus, and the fact that the gender of the Latin is not that of the English word does not disprove the supposition; … And … it may have been to Latin that the English word is due; but there may have been at an earlier time a native word: cf. leccan to water, and O. H. Ger. lachaand Kluge writes: The OHG. word cannot be derived from Lat. lacus, … p201, Lache. Liken also Greek lakkos and Gaelic loch (which may hav also inflow'd the English word)… all from the same IE root.

lamprey – lamprēde f. – lamprey [from medieval Latin lampreda, likely from Latin lambere ‘to lick’ + petra ‘stone’ (for that the lamprey attaches itself to stones by its mouth).]

legion – legie f. – legion [from Latin legion-, from legere ‘choose, levy’ ]

lent f. lentil [L. lentem]

lēo mf. gdas. lēon, also ds. lēone, lēonan, asf. lēo, and dp. lēonum – ‘lionʼ, lioness [Latin leo, leon-, from Greek leōn, leont-]

lettuce – lactuc, lactuce, m. -ca f. – lettuce [Latin lactuca, from lac, lact- ‘milk’ (because of its milky sap)] … spelling inflow'd by French
> also: leah-troc, -tric, -trog m. lettuce. [L. lactuca]

lily – lilie f. – lily [from Latin lilium, from Greek leirion .]

line – līne f. – line [Teutonish, the OED calls it from Latin linea (fibra)‘flax (fiber)’, from linum ‘flax’; however Kluge says that it may be "an independent Teut derivative of līn, ‘linen’, … " (p.212)]

litany – lētania m. – litany. [church Latin litania, from Greek litaneia ‘prayer’, from litē ‘supplication’]

lobster – lopystre f. – lobster [Latin locusta ‘crustacean, locust’] … whence also locust

lufestice f. – ‘lovageʼ (plant), literally love-stick ¿[late Latin levisticum from Latin ligusticum, neuter of ligusticus ‘Ligurian’]?


mancus – ‘mancus’, thirty silver pence, one-eighth of a pound [likely from Latin mancus ‘mutilated, powerless, deficient’]
> bemancian – to maim, mangle (see bemancian in part I)

mass – mæsse (e) f. – mass, Eucharist, celebration of Eucharist; special mass day, festival of the church. [from church Latin missa, from Latin miss- ‘dismissed’, from mittere, mayhap from the last words of the service, Ite, missa est ‘Go, it is the dismissal.’]

magdalatrēow n. – almond-tree [L. amygdala]

magister – see master below

mallow – mealwe f. – mallow [from Latin malva; akin to Greek malakhē]

mamma – mamme f. – teat, brest, breast [Latin mamma ‘brest’ (Latin pl. mammae)] … same root for mammal (think of it as mamma + al or el) … OE plural: mamman shows that today’s Eng. pl. should be mammen.

manna – manna n. – manna (food) [church Latin, from Greek, from Aramaic mannā, from Hebrew mān]

mantle, mantel – mentel (æ) m., gs. mentles – mantle, cloak [from Latin mantellum ‘cloak’]

marble – marma m. – marble [from Latin marmor, from Greek marmaros ‘shining stone’, akin to marmairein ‘to shine’] … spelling inflow'd by French marbre
> marman-stan (marmel-, marm(or)-) m. – marble, piece of marble ['marmstan']
> marmstangedelf n. – quarrying of marble

market – market n. – market [Teutonish, from Latin mercatus, from mercari ‘to trade’, from merx, merc- ‘merchandise’ ] … see mertze below

martyr – martir, martyr(e) m. martyr  [L. from Greek martur ‘witness’ (in Christen use, ‘martyr’).]
> martirlogium m. martyrology
> martyrdōm m. martyrdom
> martyrhād m. martyrdom.
> martyrian, -trian to martyr,
> martyrracu f. martyrology
> martyrung f. passion (of Christ), martyring

mārūfle horehound. [L. marrubium]

master, magister – magister (æ) m. –  leader, chief, master, teacher [from Latin magister ‘master’; likely kin to magis ‘more’ (fb, ‘more important’)]
> masterdom – magisterdom, mægsterdom m. – office of a master or teacher

mat, matt – matt, meatt f. – mat, matt [Teutonish, from late Latin matta ‘mat made from rushes’, from Phoenician]

mechanical, mechanish – mechanisc – mechanical [L. from Greek mēkhanikos, from mēkhanē, from mēkhos ‘contrivance’ … also the root of masheen (machine)]

med- – a forefast that mostly shows mediocrity, but often comes to hav a distinct negativ value; see, fb, medtrum, medwīs. [midde] … not to be befuddel'd with mēd ‘meed, reward’
> medrīce – of low rank
> medsēlþ (æ) f. – ill-fortune
> medspēdig – poor
> medstrang – of middle rank
> medtrum – weak, infirm, sickly, ill; of lower rank
> medwīs – dull, stupid, foolish

medume, medeme, meodume; adj. – I. middling, moderate, common, average, mean  II. medium, taking the middle or mean spot as regards (a) size, amount, asf. [mayhap from Latin medium, neuter of medius ‘middle’  or rooted on the Teut. stem mēd, see mete]
> medemian (eo) – moderate
> medemlic – moderate, mediocre
> medemlicnes f. – mediocrity

mertze, myrtse f. – merchandise, trading fees [L. mercem]? Liken OHGer. nicrzi  from merx? … see etym for market abuv]

mess – mese (ēo, ī, ý) f. – table at which a meal is taken; what is placed on a table. [¿mayhap from Latin mensa ‘table’ ?], whence mess; liken OHG maz ‘food’
>mess – mesan – to feed, eat, to mess; liken to metian – to feed, supply with food, and Ger. messen (not a Latinate) – to measure, measure out
>mes-hrægel – napkin (mess-cloth)

mēter n. – meter (poetic verse) [from Latin metrum, from Greek metron ‘measure’ … this shares the same IE root with OE mēt ‘measure, mete’  … metan ‘to measure, mete’ … metod ‘fate, meted time’ … metrāp … ‘mete-rope, measure rope’metgian, metegian, metian ‘meditate, regulate, assign, mete out’] … 
> mētercræft m. art of versifying

mile – mīl f. – mile [from Latin milmille passus – a thousand steps]

militia, military – milite – soldiers [from Latin miles, milit- ‘soldier’]
> military – militisc – military [from Latin miles, milit- ‘soldier’]

mill – myle, mylen mf. – mill [Teutonish, seemingly rooted on late Latin molinum, from Latin mola ‘grindstone, mill’, from molere ‘to grind’, from an IE root of mal, akin to English meal (OE mæl) and German mahlen. The Anglo word for mill is cwyrn, cweorn ‘quern’]

mime – mīma m. – mime [likely from Latin mimus, from Greek mimos; whence also mimic]

memory – mimor, gemimor – memory, existing in memory or mind, known [likely from Latin memor ‘mindful, remembering’ with today's spelling from OF memorie]
> mimorian, mymerian – keep in memory, memorize, remember

mint – minte f. – mint [from Latin menta or straight from Greek minthē ]

mix – miscian – to mix, apportion. [from Latin mixtus, or miscere ‘to mix’] ? liken Ger. mischen, today's spelling from OF mixte.

mode – mydd n. – bushel [from Latin modius, from modus ‘measure’, whence also module; from an Indo-European root shared by mete; liken to mood]
> mydrece, myderce f. – chest, money-box, module
> tow-mydrece/myderce f. – work-box, box for keeping things for spinning (tow)

monastery – mynster n. – monastery, nunnery [L. monasterium, from church Greek monastērion, from monazein ‘live alone,’ from monos ‘alone.’] … spelling chanj'd in ME

money – mynet n. – coin, money,  [from Latin moneta ‘mint, money’, from a title of the goddess Juno, in whose temple in Rome money was minted] … whence money … spelling from OF moneie
> mynetcypa m. – money-changer
> mynetere m. – ‘minterʼ, coiner; money-changer, Mt; Æ.
> mynetian – to coin
> mynetīsen n. – coinage
> mynetslege m. – minting, coinage
> mynetsmiþþe f. –  mint (money-smith)

monger – mangere m. – monger [‘to traffic’ of Teutonic whelm, mayhap rooted on Latin mango ‘dealer’; however Skeat writes: The relationship to the Lat. mango, a dealer in slaves, is not clear; but the E. word does not appear to have been borrowed from it. … Skeats, p375, monger]
> mangung f. – trade, traffic, business, commerce, dealing; also merchandise
> mangung-hus – a house for traffic, business, commerce

moraþ (ō?) n.sweet boiled wine with herbs. [L. moratum]

mortar – mortere m. – mortar [from Latin mortarium (to which the English spelling was later chanj'd to match)] LOE?

mount – munt m. – mount, mountain, hill [from Latin mons, mont- ‘mountain’]

mule – mūl m. – mule [Teutonish, from Latin mulus, mula]

munuc m. – monk (also of women) [L. monachus, from Greek monakhos ‘solitary’, from monos ‘alone’]

mure – mūr m. – wall [from Latin murus ‘wall’]? LOE? or IE root? … also root of mural. [liken Ger. Mauer]

mussel, muscle – muscelle, muscle, muxle, musle f. – shell-fish, mussel; muscle [Teutonish, Middle Low German mussel, Middle Dutch mosscele; mayhap from late Latin muscula, from Latin musculus ‘muscle’, diminutiv of mus ‘mouse’ (some muscles being thought to be mouselike in form) … HOWEVER … it could all be rooted on OE mus ‘mouse, muscle’ of Teutonish upspring; akin to Dutch muis and German Maus, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin and Greek mus .

must – must m. – ‘mustʼ, new wine [from Latin mustum, neuter (used as a noun) of mustus ‘new’ akin to moist] liken mustard must + -ard … this is NOT the modal verb must

mutate – bemūtian / bimūtian – to change, exchange for [from Latin mutare ‘to change’]
> mutian – to change, exchange [hence, molt]
> mutual – mutung f. – a loan? borrowing? [likely rooted on Latin mutuus ‘mutual, borrowed’]

myltestre (e, i) f.  – prostitute [L. meretricem] ?
> myltestrehūs n. brothel

myrrh – myrre, murre f. – myrrh [Teutonish, from Latin, from Greek murra, likely Semitic; liken to Arabic murr ‘bitter’]
myrrh – myrra, murra f. – myrrh, cicely [from Latin myrris, from Greek murris]

mysci – flies [L. musca]


nard – nard m. – spikenard, unguent [from Latin nardus, from Greek nardos; akin to Sanskrit nalada, narada] PIE?

neep – næp m. – turnip [Teutonish, Icel. næpa; f. a turnip, likely from Latin napus] … afaik, this is not the same neep meaning a wagonʼs draft-tree (tung).

nefte, nepte f. – catʼs mint [from Latin nepeta]

note – nōt m. – mark, note [from Latin nota ‘a mark’, notare ‘to mark’; Shares an IE root with know. A nota is a mark whereby a thing is known.] … this is not the root of OE notian ‘to use, employ, make use of, enjoy’ … 
whence todayʼs like-spelld (homonymic) English note, with the same meanings as in OE, and benote ‘to consume, use up’ (also spelld like the Latin rooted benote ‘to denote, mark’) [liken Ger. nutzen, benutzen]
> nōtere m. – notary, one who makes notes, scribe, writer [Latin notarius ‘secretary’, from nota ‘mark’]
> nōtwrītere – a note writer, scribe

nun nunne f. – ‘nun’, pagan priestess, vestal [Teutonish, from church Latin nonna, fem of nonnus ‘monk, father’, titles of respect … liken Gr nanni, nenna ‘aunt’ and nannas, nennos ‘uncle’; English nana.]

nocturn – noctern m. n. – nocturn [from church Latin nocturnum, neuter of Latin nocturnus ‘of the night’]


offer – offrian – to offer, sacrifice, bring an oblation [Teutonish, from Latin offerre ‘bestow, present’ (in church Latin‘offer to God’)]

oil – ele m. – oil  [Teutonish (O. Sax. olig, n: Frs. oalje: O. Frs. olie: Dat. olie, f: Ger. ol, a: MHGer. ol, n: OHGer. olei, n: Goth. alew, n: Dan. olie, m. f: Swed. olja, f: Icel. olea, olia, f; Lat. oleum, n: Grk. elaion, n. olive oil; iala, f. olive-tree, olive fruit) mayhap from Latin oleum ‘(olive) oil’, from Greek elaia, from elaion ‘oil’ or IE root] … spelling change could be from any of the other tungs.

ōma? m. ome? f. – a liquid measure [L. (h)ama; Ger. ohm]

orc I. m. – pitcher, crock, cup. [Late L. orca; L. urceus]? or from OE crocc
     II. (orcen, orc-neas) m. demon, sea monsters [mayhap from Latin orcus ‘hell’] … or Teutonish, liken Ice. seal’.

orel n. – robe, garment, mantle, veil [L. orarium]

organ – organ, organa, organe f. – organ [from Latin organum, from Greek organon ‘tool, instrument, sense organ’  and/or from Greek organ ‘swell or be excited’]
> organistre, organystre m. – organist 

ounce – yndse f. – ounce; piece of money, shekel. [L. uncia, see inch]

oyster – ostre f. – oyster [L. ostrca, from Greek ostreon; related to osteon ‘bone’ and ostrakon ‘shell or tile’]


palace – palendse, palentse, pal(l)ente f., pālent m. – palace [Late L. palantium or palantia; Palatium, the name of the Palatine hill in Rome, where the house of the emperor was.]
> pālentlic – belonging to a palace, palatial

pall – pæll, pell m. – silk robe, cloak; ‘pall’ hanging, covering, purple garment, purple [from Latin pallium ‘covering, cloak’]

pallium – pallium m. – pallium [L. literally ‘covering’]

palm (æ), palma m. – ‘palmʼ tree [from Latin palma ‘palm (of a hand)’, its leaf being likened to a spread hand.]

pan – panne f. – pan [Teutonish, mayhap rooted on Latin patina ‘dish’

paper – paper m – papyrus [from Latin papyrus ‘paper-reed’, from Greek papuros]

paradise – paradīs m. – paradise [from church Latin, from Greek paradeisos ‘royal (enclosed) park’, from Avestan pairidaēza ‘enclosure, park’]

paralysis – paralisin ds. of sb. – paralysis [Latin, from Greek paralusis, from paraluesthai ‘be disabled at the side’, from para ‘beside’ + luein ‘loosen’]

pard – pard m. – panther. [from Latin, pardus ‘leopard’; panther came later from Latin panthera, from Greek panthēr. The two terms led to befuddling: until the mid 1800s, many taxonomists thought the panther and the leopard as sunder species.]

part – part m. – part [from Latin partem]

pebble – papolstān m. – pebble (pebblestone) [L. papula]? OED calls it unknown.

periwinkle – pervince, perwince f. – ‘periwinkleʼ (plant) [from late Latin pervinca]

parsley – petersilie f. – ‘parsleyʼ [late Latin based on Greek petroselinon, from petra ‘rock’ + selinon ‘parsley’] liken Ger. petersilie

pea (pease) – pise f. – peas [Latin, from Greek pison]

peach – persic, -soc, -suc m. – peach [from medieval Latin persica, from Latin persicum (malum), literally ‘Persian apple’]

peacock – pea, pāwa m., pāwe f. – peacock, peahen [from Latin pavo]

pear – pere, peru f. – pear [from Latin pirum]

peace – pais – peace [from Old French pais, from Latin pax, pac- ‘peace’] LOE: Pais he makede men and dær. … AS Chronicles, 1135

peel, pillage – pillan – to peel, to pillage [may be from Latin pilare ‘to strip hair from’, from pilus ‘hair’. Could also be from pyllian, pullian ‘to pull, pluck off’. The otherness between peel and pill may be from the French verbs peler ‘to peel’ and piller ‘to pillage’.] LOE? - Ðis lácecræft sceal tó ðan handan ðe ðæt fell of pyleþ.

pentecost – pentecosten m. – ‘Pentecostʼ, Whitsunday [Latin from Greek pentēkostē (hēmera) ‘fiftieth (day)’ (because the Jewish festival is held on the fiftieth day after the second day of Passover).]

peony – peonie f. – peony [Latin, from Greek paiōnia, from Paiōn, the name of the physician of the gods.]
pepper – pipor m. – pepper [Likely from Latin piper, from Greek peperi, from Sanskrit pippalī ‘berry, peppercorn’] … However, Teutonic, Latin, Greek, OSlov. (pipru), and Sanskrit may betoken an IE root.

pestle – pilstre f. – pestle [from Latin pistillum, from pist- ‘pounded,’ from the verb pinsere ]
> pil-stocc – pestle
> pil-stampe – pestle

pharaoh – pharoa – pharaoh [from church Latin, from Greek Pharaō, from Hebrew parōh, from Egyptian pr-o ‘great house’]

philosopher – philosoph m. – philosopher [Latin, from Greek philosophos ‘lover of wisdom’, from philein ‘to love’ + sophos ‘wise’

pigment – pihment (y) – a pigment, drug [from Latin pigmentum, from pingere ‘to paint’ ] … whence also paint

pihten – part of a loom ¿[L. pecten]?

pile – pīl m. – ‘pileʼ, a pointed object, spike, nail, shaft, stake; arrow, dart, javelin: pl. hairs of plants [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pijl and German Pfeil, from Latin pilum ‘(heavy) javelin’]

pile, pillar – pīle f.– mortar, pestle, stake [from Latin pila ‘pillar, pier’ whence pillar]

pilesse, pilch – pilece, pylece – [Teutonish, see pall abuv, OHGer. pelliz : Icel. piliza, pilia a fur coat, from medieval Latin pellicia (vestis)‘(garment) of fur’, from pellis ‘skin’

pillow – pyle (i) m. – pillow [akin to Dutch peluw and German Pfühl, mayhap rooted on Latin pulvinus ‘cushion’]

pin – pinn sb. – ‘pinʼ, peg; writing pen [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pin ‘pin, peg’, mayhap from Latin pinna, penna ‘point, tip, edge’]

pine, pain – pīn f. – pain, torment, anguish, torture. [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pijnen, Ger. peinen ‘experience pain’, also to bygone pine ‘punishment’; likely rooted on Latin poena ‘punishment’ whence also pain.] … in the end, pine and pain are only otherly spellings of the same word.
> pinian – to torment
> pinere – tormenter
> pīnness – torment, pain

pine (tree) – pīn-treow n. – pine [from Latin pinus]?

pinsian – to weigh, consider, examine, reflect [L. pensare]

pīs – heavy, [L. pensum]

pīsle f. – warm chamber [Low L. pisalis]

pit – pytt m. – ‘pit,ʼ hole, well, grave, pustule [early Teutonish, maybe from L. puteus]

pitch - pic n. – pitch (tar) [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pek and German Pech; rooted on Latin pix, pic-, picem]

plait – plett f – fold [Latin plecta ‘hurdleʼ]

place (also pleck) – plæce f. – open space, street [Teutonish, from Latin platea ‘open space’, from Greek plateia (hodos) ‘broad (way)’] … liken Ger. Platz, Ice. plaz.

planet – planeta m., f? – planet [from late Latin planeta, planetes, from Greek planētēs ‘wanderer, planet’ from planan ‘wander’] … the Anglo word is tungol.

plant – plante f. – ‘plantʼ, shoot [erly Teutonish, from Latin planta ‘sprout, cutting’] or IE root? Liken to clan [from Scottish Gaelic clann, from Old Irish cland, from Latin planta ‘sprout’]? … Ger. Pflanze
> plantian – to plant

plaster – plaster n. – ‘plasterʼ (as medicament) [from medieval Latin plastrum (shortening of Latin emplastrum, from Greek emplastron ‘daub, salve’)]
> plasterplatian– to cover with metal plates. 

plate – platian – to cover with plates [from medieval Latin plata ‘plate armor,’ based on Greek platus ‘flat’]
> geplatod – plated
> platung f. – metal plate [v. plate]

plume – plūmfeþer f. – down (plumefeather) [from Latin pluma ‘down’]

plum – plýme, plúme f. – plum, plum-tree [from medieval Latin pruna, from Latin prunum, from Greek prou(m)non ‘plum’
> plum-sla – sloe, wild plum
> plum-seaw – plum juice
> plum-treo – plum tree

point – pynca, pinca m. – point [from Latin puncta ‘pricking’]
> pyngan – to prick, puncture, punch

pole, pale – pāl m. – pole, pale, stake, post; spade. [Teutonish; akin to Dutch paal and German Pfahl, rooted on Latin palus ‘stake’]

polente – polente f. – parched corn, ‘polentaʼ [from Latin polenta ‘pearl barley’]

pollegie f. – pennyroyal [from Latin pulegium ‘thyme’]

pont, pontoon – punt – punt [Teutonish, from Latin ponto, denoting a flat-bottomed, from pons, pont- ‘bridge’  … not ‘puntʼ the verb

pope – pāpa m. – pope [L. papa]
> popehood – pāpanhād m. – papal office
> popedom – pāpdōm m. – papacy, popedom

poplar – popul – poplar (popul-tre) [from Latin populus ‘poplar, people’] …  whence also popular

poppy – popig – poppy [mayhap from a medieval Latin twisting of Latin papaver]

por, porr, porlēac n. – leek [L. porrum]

port – port I. mn. – port, harbor; town with a harbor [from Latin portus ‘haven, harbor’]
                 II. m. portal, door, gate, entrance, opening [from Latin porta ‘gate’]

portico, porche – portic mn. – portico, porch, vestibule, sanctuary, chapel [from Latin porticus ‘porchʼ]

post – post m. – post [Latin postis ‘doorpost’, later ‘rod, beam’]

pound – pund n. – pound (in weight or in money), pint [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pond and German Pfund, from Latin (libra) pondo, denoting a Roman ‘(pound) weight’ of 12 ounces; akin to pundus ‘a weight’, whence ponder.]
> pundur n. – weight, plumb-line [
L. pondere]
> pundern-georn – yearn to ponder, weigh, consider
> apundrian – weigh? ponder?

press – press f. – press [from Latin ‘pressus’, from a base PRAM ‘to press’. Root unknown. Liken Goth. anapraggan (ana-prang-an)]

priest – prēost (ēa, ē, īo) m. – ‘priestʼ,ʼ presbyter [Teutonish; akin to Dutch priester, German Priester, rooted on Latin presbyter ‘elder’, from Greek presbuteros ‘elder’ (noted in the New Testament for an elder of the early church), comparativ of presbus ‘old (man)’] 

prime – prīm n – ‘primeʼ, the first hour (6 a.m.): the service held at 6 a.m. [from Latin prima (hora)‘first (hour)’, from Latin primus ‘first’ ]

prior – prior m. – a prior [from Latin, literally ‘former, elder’ akin to prae ‘before’]
pronoun – pronomia – pronoun [Latin pronomen, from pro- ‘for, in place of’ + nomen ‘name’] … þa pronomina, þe habbaþ vocativum, þá habbaþ six casus … the pronouns which have a vocative, then have six cases

proov [prove] – prōfian – to assume to be, take for, esteem, regard as, demonstrate [from Latin probare ‘test, approve, demonstrate’, from probus ‘good’]

proud – prūd, prūt – ‘proudʼ, arrogant [L.?] [Icel. prúþr gallant, brave, magnificent]

provost – profost, prafost m. – officer, ‘provostʼ, reeve [Teutonish, from medieval Latin propositus, synonym of Latin praepositus ‘head, chief’]

prutene f. – southern-wood, wormwood [L. abrotanum]

psalm – psealm, psalm, sealm (a, eo) m. – ‘psalm’, song [from church Latin, from Greek psalmos ‘song sung to harp music’, from psallein ‘to pluck’]
> salletan – to sing psalms, play on, or sing to, the harp. [L. psallere, from Greek]

psalter – psaltere, saltere (ea) m. – ‘psalterʼ, collection of psalms, service book containing the psalms, BH, Ct; Æ: psaltery, Lcd (ps-). [from Latin psalterium from Greek psaltērion ‘stringed instrument’]

pumice – pumic m – pumice [L. pumicem]

pure – purlamb n. – lamb without blemish … pure? [from Latin purus  + lamb]

purpl, purple = purpur [[under "purpure"]]
purple – purpure f. – purpur, ‘purpleʼ, a purple garment [from Latin purpura ‘purple’, from Greek porphura, denoting mollusks that yielded a crimson dye, also cloth dyed with this.]

purse – purs – purse [late L. bursa, from Greek bursa ‘hide, leather’]

pyretre f. – pellitory [L. pyrethrum]

pyrric – pirenisc – Pyrrhenian


quart, quarter – cwatern, cwætern – the number four at dice (quart, quarter) [from Latin quartarius ‘fourth part of a measure’, from quartus ‘fourth’, from quattuor ‘four’]
> cwarten n. – guardhouse, blockhouse (four sides), prison


rabid – rabbian – to rage, rave [from Latin rabere ‘to rave’, whence rabid]

radish – rǣdic m. – radish [from Latin radix, radic- ‘root’]

regulation, rule, ruler (stick) – regol (eo) m. – rule, regulation, canon, law, standard, pattern; monastic code of rules; ruler (instrument). [Latin regula ‘rule, straight stick’]

reign – regn-, regen- – greatness, might (a forefast found in kennings) [mayhap from ¿Latin regnum, from regare ‘to direct’, akin to rex, reg- ‘king’? or the IE root *reg, ‘to direct’ (ur-Teut root *rēk) … liken Gothic raginón ‘to rule’
> regnian – to set in order, arrange, dispose, regulate, rule, command
> regniend, reniend – one who arranges, regent

renge (y) f. – spider, spiderʼs web [from Latin aranea ‘spider.’]

rent – rente – rent [from Old French rente, from a nasaliz'd shape (rendita) of Lat. reddita, fb. reddita pecunia ‘money paid’, fem of redditus, pp. of reddere ‘to give back’, from re(d) ‘back’, dare ‘giv’, whence also render. Rent = that which is renderd] … LOE, found in the AS Chronicles, 1137

reponse – respons – a response [from Latin responsum ‘something offered in return,’ neuter past participle of respondere, from re- ‘again’ + spondere ‘to pledge’]
> reps m. – response (in a church service) [from Latin responsorium]

rose - rōse, rose f. – ‘roseʼ [Teutonish, from Latin rosa]

rue – rūde f. – rue (shrub) [from Latin ruta from Greek rhutē ] … not rue the verb

ruin? – hryre m. – fall, downfall, ruin, destruction, perdition, decay, decline, death; (adj.) falling, decaying, perishing [mayhap from Latin ruere ‘to fall’ whence Latin ruinaruin or, more likely, an IE root]
> leōd-hryre m. – fall, ruin, or destruction of a people
> līc-hryre m. – fall or ruin of the body; death
> wig-hryre m. – fall in fight

rule, ruler (stick), regulation – regol (eo) m. – rule, regulation, canon, law, standard, pattern; monastic code of rules; ruler (instrument). [Latin regula ‘rule, straight stick’]

rush – risc, risce (e; = y) f. – rush (plant) [¿from Latin ruscus? OED calls it Teutonish, (MHGer. rusch; f. a rush : Du. rusch)] 


sack – sacc (æ) m. – sack, bag [Teutonish, from Latin saccus ‘sack, sackcloth’, from Greek sakkos, from Hebrew or Phoenician sak]

sacre, sacerdotal? – sācerd mf. – priest, priestess … not forheld to Christen priests, also for heathens [from Latin sacerdos, sacerdot- ‘priest’ or more likely from Latin from sacer, sacr- ‘holy’ … whence sacre] [Anglo-Saxon alone seems to hav borrow'd this word among the Teutonish tungs.] 

sælmerige f. – brine [L. *salmoria; Gk. +halmuris+]

sæppe f. – spruce fir [from Latin sappinus]

saint – sanct m. – holy person, saint [from Latin sanctus ‘holy’, past participle of sancire ‘consecrate’]

Saturday – sætern-dæg, sæter(n)es- m. – Saturday, [oversetting of Latin Saturni dies ‘day of Saturn’]

salvia, sage – salfie, salfige f. – sage [from Latin salvia ‘healing plant’, from salvus ‘safe, uninjured’]

savin – safene, safine f. – savine (a kind of juniper) [from Latin sabina (herba)‘Sabine (herb)’]

savory – sæþerie f. – savory (plant) [from Latin satureia]

school – scōl f. – ‘school’, troop, host, multitude [Latin from Greek skholē ‘leisure, philosophy, place where lectures are given’
> scōla m. – fellow-student
> scōlere m. – ‘scholar’, learner
> scōlmann m. – scholar, pupil; client

scrætte f. – adulteress, prostitute [L. scratta]

scriptor – tīdscriptor m. – chronographer, chronicler [from Latin scribere ‘write’]

sealtian – to dance. [L. saltare]

sēamere I. m. – beast of burden, mule [L. sagmarius]?

seine – segne f. – seine, scan, dragnet [Latin from Greek sagēnē]

semi – sām- – half-, shows a partial or imperfect condition [L. semi-] … There is also … sam- (= together) denotes union, combination, or agreement (Teutonish)

senep m. – mustard. [erly Teutonish, Goth. sinap: OHGer. senaf: Ger. senf; likely from Latin sinapi, or straight from Greek σιναπι, or mayhap from the IE root]

sescle f. – sixth part. [L. sextula]

sester (eo, y) m. – a measure of bulk, Æ: vessel, pitcher, Æ. [L. sextarius]

secure, sure – sicor –  secure, sure, certain, trustworthy (ME siker, sikur) [L. securus, from se- ‘without’ + cura ‘care’. Liken to OE ‘orsorgʼ, ‘free from care, without angst, secure, safeʼ from or- ‘without’ + sorg ‘care’, OHG ursorgsecure is one of the many 16th hundyear spelling reforms to take words back nearer to their Latin spellings.]

senate – senatus – senate, witana [from Latin senatus, from senex ‘old man’, whence also senior, liken Goth. sinista ‘eldest, senior’ found in the word seneschal ‘senior servant’]
> senator – senator – senator, witan

service, serf (sorbus) – syrfe f., syrfe-treow – service-tree [from Latin servus ‘slave’, for Latin sorbus ‘service tree’]

sess m. – spot for settling, sitting; seat, bench [unknown, mayhap from Latin sessus ‘seated’, from the verb sedere … whence session; liken also OIcel. sess ‘seat, bench’] … in later prov. English, sossed ‘soakt’; sess ‘a kind of peat turf’; sessle ‘change seats often’; sesspool (cesspool) … He gesæt on sesse, Beo. Th. 5427
> sessian – subside, ebb, grow calm

Severn – Sæfern f. – Severn. [L. Sabrina]

shambles – scamol, scamel, scamul, asf m. – stool, footstool, bench, table (of money-changers) [Teutonish, from Latin scamellum, diminutiv of scamnum ‘bench’]

shrift – scrift m. – prescribed penalty or penance; absolution; confessor; judge. tō scrifte gān to go to confession [erly Teutonish, OFris. scriva to mete out a punishment’, Olc. skript ‘confession, punishment’, skripta to andett (confess), make andett, punish’. However Skeat writes that: Icel. skript or skrift, Swed. skrift, Dan. skrift, shrift, are all borrowed from A.S. … Skeats, p551, Shrove-Tuesday. 
Thus, mayhap from Latin scriptus from scribere (see below); however Kluges writes: In the latter cognates there appears at all events a genuine Teut. verbal root, skrib, to inflict a punishment’ which was transferred by Christianity to ecclesiastical affairs; … On the adoption of Roman characters, and the introduction of the art of writing (in contrast to the earlier Runic system , Lat. scribere was now combined with this genuine Teut. vb., … Kluge, p322, schreiben]
> shrive – scrīfan – prescribe, ordain, allot, assign, impose (punishment); hear confession, shrive; have regard to, be troubled about, care for [erly Teutonish, mayhap from Latin scribere ‘write’] … whence also script. Shrive is a strong verb: shrive, shrove, shriven which often, not always, betokens that is a Teutonish word.

shrine – scrīn (ý) n. – ‘shrineʼ, chest, coffer, ark, cage (for criminals). [Teutonish, likely from Latin scrinium ‘chest for books’]

sickle – sicol m. – sickle [Teutonish, akin to Dutch sikkel and German Sichel, mayhap rooted on Latin secula, from secare ‘to cut’, but more likely Teut. sëko-, from the IE root seg, sok ]

silk – seolc m. – silk [the OED calls it from late Latin sericum, neuter of Latin sericus, based on Greek Sēres, the name given to the inhabitants of the Far Eastern countries from which silk first came overland to Europe. However Kluge (p331) naysays this: It is usually assumed that these latter terms come from the Lat. … they must, however especially since their forms can scarcely be deduced from the Lat., be more fittingly connected … with an Eastern term. The Seres, from whom the Greeks obtained their term σηρικος (Lat. séricus), adj., cannot, as an East Asiatic people, be regarded as the immediate source of the North Europ. loanwords.]

sigle f. – rye, black spelt [from Latin secale; later segale, sigalum, sigla] … nother than OE sigle n. ‘necklace, collar’

sign – segn, segen, seign m, n. – sign, mark, token, military standard, banner, an ensign [likely from Latin signum ‘mark, token’] … if it is a borrowing from Latin, Kluge says AS segen must hav been borrow before erly before church Latin.

sock – socc m. – sock, light shoe, slipper [Teutonish, from Latin soccus ‘comic actorʼs shoe, light low-heeled slipper’, from Greek sukkhos]

sole – sole (u) f. – shoe, sandal [Teutonish, Latin solea ‘sandal, sill’, from solum ‘bottom, pavement, sole’; liken to Dutch zool and German Sohle.]

sol – sol f.? – sol, sun [Teutonish, (Goth. sauil; n. : Icel. sol; f) , from Latin sol ‘sun’?
> solmerca m. – sundial [sol + mearca ‘mark’]
> solate, solsece (æ) f. – heliotrope [L. solsequia ‘sun-following’]

solar, solarium? – solar, solor m. – loft, upper room; ‘palatiumʼ hall, dwelling [L. solarium? or from OE sol [Goth. sauil; n. : Icel. sol; f

sot – sott – fool; foolish, stupid [likely from medieval Latin sottus, mayhap from Celt. … Bret. sot, sod ‘stupid’; Ir. suthaire, suthan ‘dunce’; mayhap also a belittling word for Scotts, it is known that Theodulf, bishop of Orleans, punnd upon the words Scotus and sottus (Scot and sot) in a letter to Charles the Great; liken also ODu zot]

sound – sōn m. – sound, music [from Latin sonus. The shape with -d was done in the 16th hundyear.]

spelt – spelt m. — spelt, corn [OHGer. spelza spelta; ¿from Latin spelta?] LOE?

spend – spendan – to spend [Teutonish, from Latin dispendere ‘pay out’]
> spend, spending – spendung – spending
> aspend – aspendan – to spend (money), expend, distribute, squander, consume
> forspend – forspendan – to spend utterly, exhaust, squander  … to be forspent is to be exhausted

spice – spīce f., spīca m. – aromatic herb, spice [from Latin species ‘sort, kind’ in late Latin ‘wares’]

sponge – sponge, spynge (i), spyncge f. – sponge [Latin spongia, from Greek spongia, later form of spongos]

spyrte (e, i) f. – wicker basket, eel-basket. [L. sporta]

stagnant? (s)tank? – stæg n. – pool, pond. [L. stagnum ‘pool’?] root of stagnant, stagnate

stāncyst, stāncysten – chestnut-tree. [from Latin castanea, from Greek kastanea]

stole – stole f. – stole [from Latin, from Greek stolē ‘clothing’, from stellein ‘array’]

stop – stoppian – stop, shut an apertur [Teutonish, akin to German stopfen, mayhap ¿from late Latin stuppare ‘to stuff’, from Latin stuppa, ‘tow’?; Kluge casts doubt on that assumption and says there is an implied IE root stup, tup, linkt to Sans. stump (tump) ‘to push, thrust’, Greek stuphein ‘draw together’] … if so, then that would likely lead to an Teut. root for stuff as well since they all share the same IE root.
>forstoppian – to stop up, forstop

storax, styrax – stōr m. – incense, frankincense [L. storax, from Greek sturax] … the other stor, meaning ‘great, strong’, is likely from ON storr.

story – steōr, ster, stær n. – history, story [root unknown, mayhap from Latin/Greek historia] … On Ongelcynnes steóre, ðæt is, on historia Anglorum

strǣl I. fm. – arrow, dart, missile. [Ger. strahl]
> II. also strǣ f. – curtain, quilt, matting, bed [L. stragula]

strap – strop – strap [Teutonish, mayhap from Latin stroppus ‘thong’] … However, liken German straff for which Kluges says: It has been supposed that Ital. strappare, ‘to tear out’, is borrowed from Teut. by assuming a root strap, 'to draw' ; hence straff, lit. ‘drawn tight’? … p.352, straff
> strapul m. – a covering for the leg, kind of trouser

street – strǣt I. f. – ‘streetʼ, high road [from late Latin strāta (via)‘paved (way)’, feminine past participle of sternere ‘lay down’
> II. f. – bed [from Latin stratum, literally ‘something spread or laid down’ neuter past participle of sternere ]

strýta (ū) m. – ostrich [late Latin struthio, or straight from Greek strouthiōn ‘ostrich’, from strouthos ‘sparrow or ostrich’]

study – studdian – to study, see, take care of [from Latin studere ‘to be keen about’]
> bestuddian – to study, be keen about, take care of

sūþerige – ‘satirionʼ (plant) [L. satureia? liken sæþerie]

swiftlēre (u, y) m. – slipper [L. subtalaris]

Syndonisc – Indian [L. from Gk.]

synod – sinoþ (e, eo, y) f. – synod, council, meeting, assembly [L. synodus, from Greek sunodos ‘meeting’, from sun- ‘together’ + hodos ‘way’]


table, tablet – tabule f. – ‘tableʼ; writing ‘tabletʼ, gaming table, table of the law; a wooden hammer, or piece of wood struck as a signal for assembling monks [from Latin tabula ‘plank, tablet, list’]

tæfl fn. – cube, die, game with dice or tables. [L. tabula]? [Icelandic taj? ] see tassel, tessera, table
> tæflan, tæfian to gamble
> tæfle adj. given to dice-playing
> tæflere m. gambler.
> tæflstān m. gambling-stone, die
> tæflung f. gaming, playing at dice.

talent – talente f. – ‘talentʼ (money of account) [from Latin talenta, plural of talentum ‘weight, sum of money’ from Greek talanton; Witt of skill is from the 
biblical bysen (parable) of the talents (Matt. 25:14–30)]

taper – tapor m. – taper, wick of a lamp [unalike shape (by swapping p- to t-) of Latin papyrus, from Greek papuros, the pith of which was noted for candle wicks; however, Clark writes: Celtic?]

tapet – tæppet, tæpped n. – tapis, tapestry, carpet, cover [likely from Latin tapete ‘carpet’, from Greek tapētion] … however, tap from OE tæppa has a Teut. root.

tassel, tessera – tasul, tasol, teosel, teosul (a, e) m. – die (‘tesseraʼ) [from Latin taxillus(?), tessellis, from Greek, neuter of tesseres, variant of tessares ‘four’]

Thames – Temes, Temese f. – river Thames [L. Tamisia]

temple – tempel, templ n. – temple, hof [from Latin templum ‘open or consecrated space’] … spelling from Old French temple

temper – temprian v. – to temper, moderate; cure, heal; control, curb [from Latin temperare ‘mingle, restrain oneself’ ]
> temprung f. – tempering, moderation

term, terminus – termen m. – term, end [from Latin terminus ‘end, boundary’]

thyme? – þimiama m. – incense [L. thymiama, ? from Greek thumon, from thuein ‘burn, sacrifice’]

tiara –  tigera (bufantigera) – tiara [from Latin from Greek]

tile – tigele, tigle, tiegle f. – tile, brick, earthenware [likely from Latin tegula, from an IE root meaning ‘cover’ (liken OE teld, teldan, teldian)]

tiger – tiger – tiger [from Latin tigris, from Greek]
> tigerish – tigrisc – of a tiger

timpani, timbrel, tympanum – timpane f. – timbrel, kettledrum [from Latin tympanum ‘drum’, from Greek tumpanon ‘drum’, rooted on tuptein ‘to strike’]
> timpestre f. – female timbrel-player

title (v) – tītelian – to indicate by a written mark, entitle, ascribe [from Latin titulus ‘inscription, title’]
> tītelung f. – ‘recapitulatioʼ, a giving of titles or headings,
> title – tītul m. – title, superscription [from Latin titulus ‘inscription, title’]

toll – toll mn. – toll [mayhap rom medieval Latin toloneum, alteration of late Latin teloneum, from Greek telōnion ‘tollhouse’, from telos ‘tax’ but Kluge says (p409, Zoll): The Ger. words are, … so old, and correspond so closely, that they must be regarded as of genuine Teut. origin. Zoll is connected with the root tal (appearing in zählen and Zahl), of which it is an old partic. in no- (ll from ln), and hence it signified originally ‘that which is counted’.] … liken told from tell meaning: count (the members of a series or group): The shepherd had told all his sheep. / all told meaning ‘in total, all counted’: All told, there were about 20 bods there.

torque, torq, torc, tork – torcul n. – wine-press [Teutonish, likely from Latin torquere ‘to twist’, likely from Greek, see turn below] … same root for torch, torc … liken to OE torcyrre – hard to twist [tor-cyrr]

tor, tower – torr, tur m. – tower, watch-tower; rock, crag [mayhap from Celtic and akin to Welsh tor ‘belly’ and Scottish Gaelic tòrr ‘bulging hill’; ¿L. turris?, from Greek; however anent coming from Latin turris, Kluge says: AS. tur, E. tower, with the variant AS. torr, 'tower', also present a difficulty … p371, Turm]

tract – tract, traht m. – ‘tractʼ, text, passage: exposition, treatise, commentary [Teutonish, OHGer. trahtôn, ¿mayhap from Latin tractus (or tractatus) ‘drawing, dragging’, from trahere ‘draw, pull’; or tractare ‘to treat, reflect on’?; however, Kluge states: The genuine Teut. origin of OHG trahtôn is undoubted … p365, trachten
> trahtaþ m. – commentary
> trahtbōc f. – (religious) treatise, commentary [trahtian]
> trahtere, -nere m. – expounder, commentator, expositor
> trahtian, -nian – to treat, comment on, explain, expound, consider. [liken Ger. trachten, from OHG trahton]
> trahtnung, trahtung f. – explanation, exposition, commentary

trajectory? – tracter – funnel [from Latin tractârius ‘funnel’, from trajectorium or straight from traject- ‘thrown across’, from the verb traicere, from trans- ‘across’ + jacere ‘to throw’ … whence also trajectory, jet]

treacle – tyriaca, tiriaca m. – treacle, sovereign remedy [Late Latin *triacula, from Latin theriacum; from Greek thēriakē ‘antidote against venom’, fem of thēriakos (adjectiv), from thērion ‘wild beast’ from the IE root *ghwer- ‘wild’ …  whence also fierce] týrian = tēorian, not akin to tyriaca.]

tribute – trifet, trifot sb. – tribute [Teutonish, OHGer. tribuz, from L. tributum, neuter past participle (noted as a noun) of tribuere ‘assign’ (first meant ‘divide between tribes’), from tribus ‘tribe’

trimuph – triumpha m. – triumph [from Latin triump(h)us, likely from Greek thriambos ‘hymn to Bacchus’  sung in festal march to his honor; also a name for Bacchus]

triturate – trifulian – to break, bruise, stamp, triturate [from Latin tribulare ‘press, oppress’, from tribulum ‘threshing board (made of sharp points)’, rooted on terere ‘rub’ … whence also trite]

trope – tropere m. – a book containing verses sung at certain festivals before the Introit; One of the service boots of the Church, that which containd the tropes (tropus cantus) [Late Latin troparium, from Latin tropus, from Greek tropos ‘turn, way, trope’, from trepein ‘to turn’]

trout – trūht – trout [from late Latin tructa, from on Greek trōgein ‘gnaw’] LOE

trowel - trull, turl – trowel, scoop, ladle [from Latin trulla ‘scoop’, diminutiv of trua ‘skimmer’]

tube, tuba – tube f. –  trumpet [from Latin tuba]

tuft – þūf m.  – tuft, crest of a helm, banner, standard, crest. ¿[L. tufa]?
> þufe – bushy
> þuft – a place full of bushes

tunic – tunece f. – under-garment, tunic, coat, toga [from Latin tunica]

turn – turnian, tyrnan – to turn, revolve. [Teutonish, from Latin tornare, from tornus ‘lathe’, from Greek tornos ‘lathe, circular movement’] or all three are from an IE root.
> betyrnan – to turn round: prostrate oneself
> turngeat n. turn-gate, turnstile
> turnigendlic revolving.
> turnung f. rotation, turning, tourney?
> tyrning (u) f. turning round, rotation; rotundity, roundness; crookedness, deceit

turtle – turtla m., turtur m., turture f., turtle f. – turtle-dove [L. turtur]


uvula – ūf, hūf m. – uvula [from Latin uva ‘grape’, uvula itself is from late Latin, diminutiv of Latin uva] … ūf also means owl from another root.


verse – fers nm. – verse: sentence [L. versus ‘a turn of the plow, a furrow, a line of writing’, from vertere ‘to turn’] … whence also versus

viper – vīpere, uīpere f. – viper [from Latin vipera, from vivus ‘alive’ + parere ‘bring forth’] LOE?

vocativ – vocativa – vocative [Latin vocativus, from vocare ‘to call’] … þa pronomina, þe habbaþ vocativum, þá habbaþ six casus … the pronouns which have a vocativ, then have six cases


wall – weall I. (a, æ) m. – wall, dike, earthwork, rampart, dam [Teutonish, from L. vallum ‘rampart’, from vallus ‘stake’]

Wight – Wiht f. – Isle of Wight [L. Vecta or Vectis]??? … not wiht mean wight … another word.

wine – wīn n. – wine [erly Teutonish; likely rooted on Latin vinum or an IE root … Kluge writes: There is no phonological evidence to show that the word was borrowed. The assumption that it was adopted from Lat. vinum …, is probable from the accounts of ancient writers. … p385, Wein]
> wīnsester m. – wine-vessel [L. sextarius]


Onhenge A 
Old English words [E thru Z] of Teutonish/Teutonish stock that hav share'd roots with the Latin word or near meanings and look much like a Latin word.

eax, ex, æx, e; f. – axis, axle-tree  [Dut. as, f: Ger. achse, axe, f; MHGer. ahse, f: OHGer. ahsa. f; Dan. axe. m. f; Swed. axel, m; Icel. axull, öxull, m; öxul-tré, n: Lat. axis, m: Grk. αξων, m: Lith. aszis, f: Sansk. aksha the axle of a wheel, a wheel, car.], likely from ur-IE *akso-
> eaxel, eaxl, exl, e; f: eaxle – shoulder, axle [Teutonish, O. Sax. ahsla, f: O. Frs. axle, axele, f: Ger. achsel, f: MHGer. ahsel, f: OHGer. ahsala, f: Goth. amsa, m: Dan. axel, m. f: Swed. axel, m: Icel. öxl, f: Lat. axilla, f.], diminutiv of eax.

eormenenorm, ernormous, huge, universal, whole, general, great [mainly seen as a forefast: eormen- ; Teutonish O. Sax. irmin- : Icel. jörmun-] (liken Latin enormis ‘unusual, huge’)

fæcele f. – a torch [Teutonish, akin to but NOT from Latin facula … Kluge, p78, Fackel]

fell n. – fell, skin, hide [Teutonish, IE shared by Latin pellis (whence pelt)]

hænep, henep m.  hemp [Teutonish, Icel. hampr : OHGer. hanaf : Ger. hanf: OSlov. konoplja: Lith. kanépes, Persian kanab] akin to Lat. cannabis : Grk. κάνναβιs … Kluge says the thought that it is borrow'd from Latin or Greek is "untenable".  (p135)

hos f. – host, company, band : Mid mægþa hose – with a band of maidens, Beowulf [Goth. hansa multitudo: OHGer. hansa cohors: liken Ger. Hanse applied to an association of towns.]

irre n. – anger, wrath, ire, rage [from urGmc *irziá-, from PIE *ares- ] … said to be another root than Latin ire but, in the end, the same meaning.

lafianto lave, bathe, pour water on [mayhap akin to lap (OE lapian), there is, however, no connection with Lat. lavare, Gr. λουειν … Kluge, p201, laben]

lesan; p. læs; pl. lǽson; pp. lesen To lease [ = glean dialect.], gather, collect  [Teutonish, Goth. lisan: O. Sax. lesan: O. L. Ger. lesan to read: O. Frs. lesa: Icel. lesa: O. H. Ger. lesan legere, colligere: Ger. lesen] … Kluge writes: AS. lesan, simply mean 'to gather, collect' ; from the latter E. to lease is derived. … p214, lesen

logianto lodge, embed, place, put by; put in order, arrange; discourse; divide, portion out. …  +l. ûp – lay by, deposit. 
> gelogian – regulate
> gelogod spræc – (well)-order'd speech, style.
> gelogung f. – order
> logþer – plotting, cunning, artful

mægermeager, lean [Teutonish, Icel. magr: Dan., Swed., Da. mager: OHGer. magar: Ger. mager / Latin macer: Greek makethnos all likely from IE root *māk]

manian, manigean, monian; p. ode. I. bring to mind what ought to be done, warn, urge upon one what ought to be done, admonish, exhort, incite, instigate  II. bring to mind what, should not be forgotten, remind, suggest, prompt  III. mandate, to tell what ought to be done, to teach, instruct, advise  IV. claim what is due; demand — Hwane manaþ God maran gafoles þonne þone biscop … Of whom will God demand more tribute than of the bishop? [oddly enuff, this does not share an IE root with Latin mandare ‘mandate’ from manus ‘hand’ + dare ‘give’ but rather with Latin reminiscor ‘reminisce’ and monere ‘warn’ from the IE root *mon, *men]

mere, mære mf. – sea, lake, pool, sistern, mere [from UrTeutonic *mari, from Indo-European *móri IE shared by Latin mare ‘sea’] … 

metan; p. mæt, pl. mǽton; pp. meten. 1. to mete, measure II. to measure out, mark off, assign the bounds of a place III. to measure by paces, to traverse, pass over IV. to measure one thing by or with another, to compare [Goth. mitan: OLGer. metan: OFrs. Icel. meta: OHGer. mezan : Ger. messen … Kluge writes: The Teut. stem mēt, ‘to measure, estimate, ponder’ … is based on pre-Teut. mēd, and cannot, because of the non-permutation, be connected with Lat. metiri; comp. Lat. modus, … Lat. modius, Goth. mitaþs, ‘corn measure’. … p235, messen]
> meter n. – meter, one who metes or measures

scrūtnian, scrūdnianto scrutinize, examine, consider [(urGmc. *skrūdan) from the Indo-European root *skreu-, liken OHG scrutilon (scrodon/sruton); root shared with Latin scrutari ‘to search, sort trash’, from scruta ‘trash’]  
> scrūtnere – scrutineer, examiner, investigator
> scrūtnung, scrūdung f. – scrutiny, search, investigation, examination, inquiry … liken the way of saying scrutiny (from the OED): 'skro͞otn-ē 

spadu (æ) f. – ‘spadeʼ [Teutonish; akin to Dutch spade,German Spaten, also kin to Latin spatha from Greek spathē ‘blade, paddle’]

swēte sweet [Teutonish, akin to Dutch zoet,German süss, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin suavis and Greek hēdus]

træglianto pluck, pull, trail …  Kluge writes: On account of Fr. trailler ‘to pull’, which is probably a corresponding term, treideln has been supposed to be connected with Lat. trahere. There is no need, however, to ascribe the cognates to a non-Teut. origin. … p 367, treideln

trahtian, trahtnianI. to expound, explain II. to discuss III. to compose a treatise IV. to deal with a subject, consider [Teutonish, "The genuine Teut. origin of OHG. trahton is undoubted …" Kluge, p365, tracten ]

wasp – wæps m. – wasp [from an Indo-European root shared by Latin vespa; may be akin to weave (from the weblike form of its nest).]

Onhenge B 

Arthur’s English—Old Norse
Bosworth-Toller’s Old English
Clarkʼs Concise Anglo-Saxon
Kluge’s Etymological Dict. of German
Skeat’s Etymological Dict. of English
Zoëga’s Concise Old Icelandic
Online Etymology
Oxford Dictionary Online