Friday, October 3, 2014

Writing with Runes

I hav lately begun to play with writing with runes. It’s not near as hard as I thought it would be. In sum ways, it is even eazier.

I’m noting the 33-staf Anglo-Saxon futhor boosted by two other runes from other, later runes. I'm also shifting the meaning … sumwhat … of a few of them. So let's take a look:




ᚫᛏ, ᛈᚫᚦ
at, path

ai, ay, ā
long a
ᛞᚫᚷ, ᛒᚫᚷᛏ
day, bait
OE dæg




qu, kw
ᛢᛁᛁᚾ, ᛢᛠᚾ





ea, ee

ᛠᚱ, ᛒᛠᚾ
ear, bean



g (soft)/y


g (hard)




i, y
short i

long i
ᚻᚣ, ᚣᚱ
hi, fire
OE fȳr



k, hard c 




















ᛋᛖᛏ, ᛋᛁᛏ
set, sit

borrow'd, z?
ᛋᚻᛁ, ᚱᛁᛊ
maybe z? sh?




u, ū (last staf)

ᛒᚢᛏ, ᛞᚢ
but, do

ew, yu


ᚹᚢᚢᛞ, ᚻᚢᚢᛞ
wood, hood






or or ?
ᚱᚣᛎ, ᛈᛁᛊᛊᚪ
rize, pizza

One of the first things that you must understand is that the runes were for Old English. Since taking on the Latin stafs in OE, the sounds of the stafs hav shifted and new ones hav been ek't. In my eyes, the same would hav likely hav happt with runes. Thus, I'v put in a few runes from other runic writing ways.

The next thing is to keep things fonetic. A straight translit from today’s English spelling not only is unneeded but unwanted!

Also, I had to think about how the stafs were noted in OE. For byspel, the staf y in OE had the sound of German ü OR ī. In OE fire was spelt fȳr. The diacritic (the bar over the staf) was often left off. Well, I can't get the bar over a rune, so I'v chosen to hav (y, ȳ) to show the ī. Thus, I write today’s my as ᛗᚣ. But that means that there cannot be a straight setting of the y into and there is no need to do so. For the short i there is . Thus, July is written ᛄᛇᛚᚣ while brotherly is written ᛒᚱᚩᚦᛖᚱᛚᛁ. While the temptation is great to write I as that doesn’t match the ī sound. Thus I write .

The other vowels a bit of a mess as well. Sumtimes one must think along the lines of how it might be written fonetically in today’s English. Do could be du or doo. I'v chosen to go with ᛞᚢ and set the wiss that, as is often now, an ending vowel is long as in hi, be. To make the long u anywher else, it should be twaind … ᚢᚢ ‘uu’, ᛗᚢᚢᛏ ‘moot’, ᛗᛇᛏ ‘mute’ (myoot).

The ā sound as in day is found in OE as dæg. I keep this by noting ᚫᚷ. Thus day, make are: ᛞᚫᚷ, ᛗᚫᛣ. No silent e's!

One of the tuff ones at first was the for-, fore- forefasts. However, in OE, I hav found the for- forefast written as fer-. Indeed, often in English the forefast is said as fer. The say-way guide for forgiv is |fərˈgiv|. That solvs the problem. For the for- forefast, I write ᛖᚱ- (fer-); for the fore- forefast ᚩᚱ (for-). BTW, the matches up mor nearly to the German ver- forefast to which the for-, fer- forefast is akin. Thus, forgo is ᛖᚱᚸᛟ; forego (meaning to precede, go before) is ᚩᚱᚸᛟ; and forgiv is ᛖᚱᚸᛁᚡ.

In one chart, the was listed at st and on another, also as a z. We don’t truly need an st but an sh would be good. As I write this, I'v chozen for z. However, I still write s for plurals and declensions … thus is, givs. With the vowels unmuddl'd, one doesn't need the staf-twaining like kiss to show a short vowel but I still do it mor as a wunt. However, it is still good to show the long s as in hiss, lapss (lapse), and so forth.

Sadly, I can't get the runish thorn to cross like this Latin thorn: which was often written for the. I sumtimes put on the thorn itself for the.

A byspel:

  1. Psalm 23 (in Anglish)
 The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
 He maketh me to lie down in green fields:
he leadeth me beside the still waters.
 He aneweth my soul:
he leadeth me in the paths of rightwizeness for his name’s sake.
 Yea, tho I walk thru the dell of the shadow of death,
I will fear no evil: for thou art with me;
thy rod and thy staff they beqweem me.
 Thou reddyest a board before me in the shadow of my foes:
thou anelst my head with oil; my cup runneth over.
 Wisly goodness and liss shall follow me all the days of my life:
and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever.

ᛋᚪᛚᛗ 23
ᚦᛁ ᛚᚩᚱᛞ ᛁᛋ ᛗᚣ ᛋᚻᛖᛈᚪᚱᛞ, ᛋᚻᚫᛚᛚ ᚾᚩᛏ ᚹᚪᚾᛏ᛫
ᚻᛁ ᛗᚫᚷᛣᛖᚦ ᛗᛁ ᛏᚢ ᛚᚣ ᛞᚩᚹᚾ ᛁᚾ ᚸᚱᛠᚾ ᛁᛚᛞᛋ᛬
ᚻᛁ ᛚᛠᛞᛖᚦ ᛗᛁ ᛒᛖᛋᚣᛞ ᚦᛁ ᛋᛏᛁᛚᛚ ᚹᚫᛏᛖᚱᛋ᛫
ᚻᛁ ᚪᚾᛇᛖᛏᚻ ᛗᚣ ᛋᛟᛚ᛬
ᚻᛁ ᛚᛠᛞᛖᚦ ᛗᛁ ᛁᚾ ᚦᛁ ᛈᚫᚦᛋ ᚩᚡ ᚱᚣᛏᚹᚣᛊᚾᛖᛋᛋ ᚩᚱ ᚻᛁᛋ ᚾᚫᚷᛗ ᛋᚫᚷᛣ᛫
ᚷᛖ ᚦᛟ ᚹᚪᛚᛣ ᛏᚻᚱᚢ ᚦᛁ ᛞᛖᛚᛚ ᛁᚾ ᚦᛁ ᛋᚻᚫᛞᛟ ᚩᚡ ᛞᛖᚦ,
ᚹᛁᛚᛚ ᛠᚱ ᚾᚩ ᛠᚡᛁᛚ᛬ ᚩᚱ ᚦᚩᚣ ᚪᚱᛏ ᚹᛁᚦ ᛗᛁ᛫
ᚦᚩᚢ ᚱᛖᛞᛞᛁᛖᛋᛏ ᛒᚩᚱᛞ ᛒᛁᚠᚩᚱ ᛗᛁ ᛁᚾ ᛋᚻᚪᛞᛟ ᚩᚡ ᛗᚣ ᛟᛋ᛬
ᚦᚩᚢ ᚪᚾᛠᛚᛖᛋᛏ ᛗᚣ ᚻᛖᛞ ᚹᛁᚦ ᚩᛁᛚ; ᛗᚣ ᛣᚢᛈ ᚱᚢᚾᚾᛖᚦ ᚩᚡᛖᚱ᛫
ᚹᛁᛋᛚᛁ ᚸᚢᚢᛞᚾᛖᛋᛋ ᚫᚾᛞ ᛚᛁᛋᛋ ᛋᚻᚪᛚᛚ ᚩᛚᛚᛟ ᛗᛁ ᚪᛚᛚ ᚦᛁ ᛞᚫᚷᛋ ᚩᚡ ᛗᚣ ᛚᚣᚠ᛬

ᚫᚾᛞ ᚹᛁᛚᛚ ᛞᚹᛖᛚᛚ ᛁᚾ ᚦᛁ ᚻᚩᚢᛋᛋ ᚩᚡ ᚦᛁ ᛚᚩᚱᛞ ᚩᚱ ᛖᚡᛖᚱ᛫

Monday, September 22, 2014

List of New Spellings N-Z

The New Spellings of the Philological Society of London
F. A. March

Transactions of the American Philological Association (1869-1896), Vol. 12 (1881), pp. 52-68
Amended Spellings N thru Z
nabbed: nabd 
nailed: naild
naphtha: naptha, naftha
narrative: narrativ
narrowed: narrowd
native: nativ
neared: neard
needle: needl negative: negativ nephew: nevew, nefew nephritic: nefritic nerve: nerv
nerved: nervd
nestle: nestl
nestled: nestld
nettle: netl
neutralise: neutralize 
newfangled: newfangld 
newfashioned: newfashiond
nibble: nibl / nibbled: nibld 
nicked: nickt
nipple: nipl
nitre, niter: niter 
noddle: nodl 
nominative: nominativ 
notable: notabl
notch: noch / notched: nocht 
nourish: nurish / nourished: nurisht 
nozzle, nosle: nozl 
nubile: nubil
null: nul
numb: num
numskull: numskul 
nursed: nurst 
nutritive: nutritiv 
nuzzle: nuzl
nymph: nymf

oaken: oaken
objective: objectiv 
observable: observabl / observe: observ / observed::observd 
obtained: obtaind / obtainable: obtainabl 
obtrusive: obtrusiv 
occurred: occurd 
odd: od
offence, offense: offense / offensive: offensiv 
offered: offerd
ogre, oger: oger 
olive: oliv
once: onse
ooze: ooz / oozed: oozd 
opened: opend 
ophidian: ofidian
ophthalmic: ofthalmic / ophthalmy: ofthalmy 
opposite: opposit 
oppressed: opprest / oppresive: oppressiv 
optative: optativ 
oracle: oracl
orbed: orbd
ordered: orderd
organise, organize: organize
orphan: orfan 
orthographer: orthografer / orthographic: orthografic / orthography: orthografy 
ostracise, ostracize: ostracize
outlive: outliv
outspread: outspred 
outstretch: outstrech / outstretched: outstrecht 
outwalked: outwalkt 
overawe: overaw / overawed: overazwd 
overpassed: overpast 
overspread: overspred 
owe: ow / owed: owd 
owned: ownd 
oxide, oxid: oxid

packed: packt / pack-thread: pack-thred 
paddle: padl / paddled: padld 
padlocked: padlockt 
pained: paind 
paired: paird
palatable: palatabl 
palatine: palatin 
palaeography: palseografy
palled:: palld
palliative: palliativ 
palpable: palpabl 
palmed: palmd
paltered: palterd 
pampered: paamperd 
pamphlet: pamflet 
pandered: panderd 
paneled, panelled: paneld
panicle: panicl / panicled: panicld 
pantograph: panfograf
papered: paperd 
parable: parabl 
paragraph: paragraf / paragraphed: paragraft 
paralleled: paralleld 
paranymph: paranymf
paraphernalia: parafernalia
paraphrase: parafrase
paraphrast: parafrast
parboiled: parboild
parceled, parcelled: parceld
parched: parcht
pardoned: pardond / pardonable: pardonabl
parleyed: parleyd 
parliament: parlament
parsed: parst 
partible: partibl
participle: participl 
particle: particl 
partitive: partitiv
passed, past: past / passable: passabl / passive: passiv 
patch: pach / patched: pacht
patrolled: patrold 
patterned: patternd
pavilioned: paviliond 
pawed: pawd 
pawned: pawnd
payable: payabl 
peaceable: peaceabl
peached: peacht 
pealed: peald
pearl: perl
peasant: pezant / peasantry: pezantry 
pease, peas: peas 
pebble: pebl 
peccable: peccabl
pecked: peckt 
pedagogue: pedagog 
peddle: pedl peddled: 
pedld peddler: pedler 
peduncle: peduncl 
peeled: peeld 
peeped: peept
peered: peerd 
pegged: pegd
pell: pel
pellicle: pellicl 
pell-mell: pel-mel
penned: pend 
pence: pense
pencilled, penciled: pencild
penetrable: penetrabl / penetrative: penetrativ 
pensile: pensil 
pensioned: pensiond 
pensive: pensiv 
people: peple
peppered: pepperd
perceivable: perceivabl / perceive: perceiv / perceived: perceivd / perceptible: perceptibl / perceptive: perceptiv
perched: percht 
perfectible: perfectibl 
perfective: perfectiv 
perforative: perforativ
performed: performd / performable: performabl
perilled, periled: perild 
periphery: perifery 
periphrase: perifrase 
periphrastic: perifrastic 
perished: perisht 
perishable: perishabl
periwinkle: periwinkl
perked: perkt 
permeable: permeabl 
permissible: permissibl 
permissive: permissiv 
perplexed: perplext 
perquisite: perquisit 
personable: personabl 
perspective: perspectiv 
perspirable: perspirabl 
persuadable: persuadabl 
persuasive: persuasiv 
pertained: pertaind 
perturbed: perturbd 
pervasive: pervasiv 
perversive: perversiv 
pervertible: pervertibl 
pestered: pesterd
pestle: pestl
petit, petty: petty 
petitioned: petitiond 
petrifactive: petrifactiv 

ph: f
phaeton: faeton 
phalansterian: falansterian
phalanstery: falanstery 
phalanx: falanx 
phantasm: fantasm
phantasmagoria: fantasmagoria
phantom: fantom 
pharmacy: farmacy 
pharynx: farynx
phase: fase
pheasant: fezant
phenix: fenix 
phenomenal: fenomenal 
phenomenon: fenomenon 
phial, vial: fial, vial 
philander: filander
philanthropic: filanthropic / philanthropist: filanthropist /philanthropy: filanthropy philharmonic: filharmonic 
philippic: filippic 
philologer: filologer / philological: filological / philologist: filologist / philology: filology 
philomel: filomel 
philopena: filopena 
philosopher: filosofer / philosophic: filosofic / philosophize: filosofize / philosophy: filosofy 
phlebotomy: flebotomy 
phlegm: flegm 
phlegmatic: flegmatic 
phlox: flox
phoenix, phenix: foenix, fenix
phonetic: fonetic / phonetist: fonetist / phonic: fonic 
phonograph: fonograf / phonographer: fonugrafer / phonographic: fonografic / phonography: fonografy 
phonologic: fonologic / phonologist: fonologist / phonology: fonology / phonotypy: fonotypy 
phosphate: fosfate / phosphoric: fosforic / phosphorus: fosforus 
photograph: fotograf / photographed: fotograft / photographer: fotografer / photographic: fotografic / photography: fotografy 
photometer: fotometer / photometry: fotometry 
phrase: frase / phraseology: fraseology 
phrenologist: frenologist / phrenology: frenology 
phrensy, frenzy: frenzy 
phthisic: see tisic 
phylactery: fylactery 
physic: fysic
physical: fysical / physicked: fysickt 
physician: fysician 
physicist: fysicist 
physics: fysics 
physiognomist: fysiognomist
physiognomy: fysiognomy 
physiologic: fysiologic
physiologist: fysiologist / physiology: fysiology 
phytography: fytografy / phytology: fytology

picked: pickt 
pickle: pickl / pickled: pickld 
picnicked: picnickt 
pilfered: pilferd 
pill: pil
pillowed: pillowd 
pimped: pimpt 
pimple: pimpl / pimtpled: pimpld 
pinned: pind 
pinched: pincht 
pinioned: piniond 
pinked: pinkt 
pinnacle: pinnacl 
pintle: pintl 
pioneered: pioneerd 
pished: pisht
pitch: pich / pitched: picht
pitcher: picher 
pitchy: pichy
pitiable: pitiabl 
placable: placabl 
plained: plaind 
plaintiff: plaintif 
plaintive: plaintiv 
planned: pland 
planked:: plankt 
plashed: plasht 
plastered: plasterd plausible 
plausibl plausive: plausiv 
played: playd 
pleasant: plezant 
pleasurable: plezurabl / pleasure: plezure 
pledged: pledgd 
pliable: pliabl
plough: see plow 
plover: pluver 
plow: see plough
plowed: plowd / plowable: plowabl
plucked: pluckt
plugged: plugd
plumb: plum / plumbed: plumd / plumber, plummer: plummer
plumbing, plumming: plumming
plumb-line: plum-line 
plumped: plumpt 
plundered: plunderd
poached: poacht
poisoned: poisond 
polished: polisht
polygraph: polygraf / polygraphy: polygrafy 
polysyllable: polysyllabl 
pommel,pummel: pummel pommeled: pummeld 
pondered: ponderd / ponderable: ponderabl 
pontiff: pontif
poodle: poodl 
popped: popt
porphyritic: porfyritic / porphyry: porfyry 
portable: portabl
portioned: portiond 
portrayed: portrayd 
positive: positiv 
possessed: possest / possessive: possessiv 
possible: possibl 
potable: potabl 
pottle: potl
pouched: poucht 
poured: pourd 
powdered: powderd 
practicable: practicabl
practise: practis / practised: practist 
pranked: prankt
prattle: pratl 
prattled: pratld / prattler: pratler 
prayed: prayd 
preached: preacht 
preamble: preambl 
precative: precativ
preceptive: preceptiv
preclusive: preclusiv
preconceive: preconceiv
precursive: precursiv
predestine: predestin / predestined: predestind 
predetermine: predetermin / predetermined: predetermind
predicable: predicabl 
predictive: predictiv
preened: preend
pre-established: preestablisht
preferred: preferd / preferable: preferabl
prefigurative: prefigurativ 
prefixed: prefixt 
prehensile: prehensil 
prelusive: prelusiv 
premise, premiss: premis / premise, v:: premize / premised: premized 
preordained: preordaind
preparative: preparativ 
prepositive: prepositiv 
prerequisite: prerequisit 
prerogative: prerogativ 
prescriptive: prescriptiv 
presentable: presentabl 
preservative: preservativ 
preserve: preserv
preserved: preservd 
pressed: prest
presumable: presumabl
presumptive: presumptiv
pretense, pretence: pretense
preterit, preterite: preterit 
prevailed: prevaild 
preventable: preventabl / preventive: preventiv 
preyed: preyd 
prickle: prickl 
primitive: primitiv 
principle: principl / principled: principld 
prinked:: prinkt 
prisoned: prisond
pristine: pristin
privative: privativ 
probable: probabl 
probative: probativ 
procreative: procreativ 
procurable: procurabl 
producible: producibl / productive: productiv / productiveness: productivness
professed: profest
profered: proferd 
profitable: profitabl 
progressed: progrest
progressive: progressiv 
prohibitive: prohibitiv 
projectile: projectil 
prologue: prolog
prolonged: prolongd 
promise: promis / promised: promist
promotive: promotiv
propped: propt
propagable: propagabl
propelled: propeld
prophecy: profecy
prophesy: profesy 
prophet: profet / prophetess: profetess / prophetic: profetic 
prophylactic: profylactic
proportioned: proportiond / proportionable : proportionabl
propulsive: propulsiv 
proscriptive: proscriptiv 
prospective: prospectiv
prosperd: prosperd 
protective: protectiv 
protractive: protractiv 
protrusive: protrusiv provable: provabl 
provocative: provocativ
prowled: prowld 
published: publisht 
puckered: puckerd
puddle: pudl / puddled:pidld 
puddling: pudling
puerile: pueril 
puff: puf
puffed: puft
pull: pul
pulled: puld 
pulsatile: pulsatil / pulsative: pulsativ 
pulsed: pulst 
pulverable: pulverabl
pumped: pumpt 
punned: pund 
punched: puncht 
punished: punisht / punishable: punishabl 
punitive : punitiv
purr: pur / purred: purd
purchasable: purchasabl
purgative: purgativ
purled: purld
purline, purlin: purlin
purloined:: purloind
purple: purpl / purpled: purpld
pursed: purst
purveyed: purveyd
pushed: pushit
putative: putativ 
putrefactive: putrefactiv 
puttered: putterd 
puzzle: puzl / puzzled: puzld

quacked: quackt 
quadruple: quadrupl 
quaff: quaf / quaffed: quaft 
quailed: quaild
qualitative: qualitativ
quantitative: quantiativ
quarreled, quarrelled: quarreld
quarrelsome: quarrelsum  
quay, key: key
quell: quel / quelled: queld
quenched:: quencht 
queue, cue: cue 
quibble: quibl / quibbled: quibld 
quickened: quickend 
quiddle: quidl
quill: quil 
quivered: quiverd

racked: rackt 
raffle: rafl / raffled:: rafld 
railed: raild 
rained: raind 
raise: raiz / raised: raizd 
rammed: ramd 
ramble: rambl / rambled: rambld
ramped: rampt
rancour, rancor: rancor 
ranked: rankt
rankle: rankl rankled: rankld 
ransacked: ransackt 
ransomed: ransomd 
rapped, rapt: rapt
rasped: raspt 
rattle: ratl / rattled: ratld
raveled, ravelled: raveld / raveling, ravelling: raveling 
ravened: ravend
ravished: ravisht
reached: reacht
read: red
ready: redy
realm: relm
reaped: reapt
reared: reard
reasonable: reasonabl
reasoned: reasond
rebelled: rebeld
receipt: receit
receivable: receivabl
receive: receiv / received: receivd
receptive: receptiv
recoiled: recoild
recover: recuver / recovered: recuverd
rectangle: rectangl
reddened: reddend
redoubt: redout
redressive: redressiv
reductive: reductiv
reefed:: reeft
reeked: reekt
reeled: reeld
referred: referd
reflective: reflectiv
reflexive: reflexiv
reformed: reformd
reformative: reformativ
refreshed: refresht 
refusal: refuzal
refuse, v:: refuze
regressive: regressiv 
rehearse: reherse / rehearsed: reherst 
reined: reind
rejoined:: rejoind
relapse: relaps
relapsed:: relapst
relative: relativ
relaxed:: relaxt
released: releast
relieve: reliev / relieved: relievd 
relinquished:: relinquisht 
relished: relisht 
remained: remaind 
remarked: remarkt / remarkable: remarkabl 
remembered: rememberd
remissible: remissibl 
remunerative: remunerativ 
rendered: renderd 
renowned: renownd
repaired: repaird / repairable: repairabl 
reparative: reparativ
repelled: repeld 
replenished: replenisht 
representative: representativ
repressed: represt
reprieve: repriev
reprieved: reprievd
reproached:: reproacht
reproductive: reproductiv
reptile: reptil 
republished: republisht
repulsive: repulsiv
requisite: requisit
resemble: resembl / resembled: resembld 
reserve: reserv / reserved: reservd 
resistible: resistibl 
resolve: resolv / resolved: resolvd 
receptive: receptiv 
respite: respit 
responsible: responsibl
responsive: responsiv
restive: restiv
restrained: restraind
restrictive: restrictiv
retailed: retaild
retained: retaind
retaliative: retaliativ
retentive: retentiv
retouch: retuch
retouched: retucht
retrenched: etrecht
retributive: retributiv
retrievable: retrievabl
retrieve: retriev
retrieved: retrievd
retrospective: retrospectiv
returned: returnd
reveled,revelled: reveld / reveling, revelling: reveling
reversed: reverst / reversible: reversibl 
reviewed: reviewd 
revise: revize 
revolve: revolv / revolved: revolvd 
revulsive: revulsiv 
rhyme, rime: rime / rhymer, rimer: rimer
ridden:: ridn 
riddle: ridl / riddled: ridld
riffraff: rifraf 
rigged:: rigd 
rigor, rigour: rigor
rill: ril
rimple: rimpl 
rinsed: rinst
ripened: ripend 
ripple: ripl / rippled: ripld 
rise, v:: rize / risen: rizn 
risible: risibl
risked: riskt
rivaled, rivalled: rivald
riven: rivn
riveted, rivetted: riveted
roared: roard
robbed: robd
rocked:: rockt 
roiled: roild 
rolled: rold 
romped: rompt 
roofed: rooft 
roomed: roomd 
rose: roze 
rotten: rotn 
rough: ruf / roughen: rufen / roughened: rufend / roughening: rufening
rowed: rowd
ruff: ruf
ruffed: ruft
ruffle: rufl
rundle: rundl
rushed: rusht
rustle: rustl / rustled: rustld
saber, sabre: saber / sabered: saberd
sacked: sackt
saddened: sadend
saddled: sadld
sagged: sagd
sailed: saild
saltpetre, -peter: saltpeter
salve: salv
salved: salvd
samphire: samfire 
sanative: sanativ 
sandaled: sandald 
sanguine: sanguin 
sapphire: saffire
sardine: sardin
sashed: sasht
sauntered: saunterd savior,saviour: savior savor,savour: savor savored, savoured: savord scalped: scalpt
scanned: scand
scarred: scard
scarce: scarse
scarcity: scarsity 
scarfed: scarft
scattered: scatterd
scent, sent: sent
sceptic, skeptic: skeptic 
sceptre, scepter: scepter / sceptered, sceptred: scepterd
scholar: scolar / scholastic: scolastic / school: scool 
schooner: scooner
scimitar, cimitar: cimitar
scissors: cissors 
scoff: scof / scoffed: scoft 
scooped: scoopt 
scorned: scornd 
scoured: scourd
scourge: scurge 
scrabble: scrabl 
scramble: scrambl / scrambled:scrambld 
scratch: scrach / scratched: scracht 
screamed: screamd 
screeched: screecht 
screened: screend 
screwed: screwd  
scribble: scribl / scribbled: scribld
scrawled: scrawld 
scrubbed: scrubd 
scuffle: scufl / scuffled: scufld 
scull: scul / sculled: sculd 
scummed: scumd 
scurrile: scurril 
scuttle: scutl / scuttled: scutld 
scythe, sithe: sithe 
sealed: seald
seamed: seamd 
search: serch / searched: sercht 
seared:: seard 
seasonable: seasonabl 
seclusive: seclusiv 
secretive: secretiv 
sedative: sedativ 
seductive: seductiv 
seemed: seemd 
seize: seiz / seized: seizd
sell: sel
selves: selvs
sensed: senst
sensible: sensibl / sensitive: sensitiv 
separable: separabl 
separative: separativ 
sepulcher, sepulchre: sepulcher / sepulchered, sepulchred: sepulchred:
seraph: seraf
seraphic: serafic 
seraphim: serafim 
serve: serv
served: servd 
serviceable: serviceabl 
servile: servil
sessile: sessil
settle: setl
settled: setld 
settlement: setlment 
sewed: sewd
sextile: sextil
shackle: shackl / shackled: shackld
shadowed: shadowd 
shall: shal
shambles: shambls 
sharpened: sharpend 
sheared: sheard 
sheaves: sheavs
shell: shel
shelled: sheld 
sheltered: shelterd 
shelve: shelv, shelvs / shelved: shelvd 
sheriff: sherif 
shingle: shingl / shingled: shingld / shingles: shingls 
shipped: shipt 
shirked: shirkt 
shivered: shiverd 
shocked: shockt 
shopped: shopt 
shortened: shortend 
shove: shuv
shoved: shuvd / shoving: shuving 
shovel: shuvel / shoveled: shoveld 
showed: showd 
shrill: shril 
shrugged: shrugd 
shuffle: shuffl / shuffled: shufld 
shuttle: shutl
siccative: siccativ 
sickened:: sickend
sieve: siv
sighed: sighd
signed: signd 
significative: significativ 
sill: sil
silvered: silverd
simple: simpl 
since: sinse
single: singl 
singled: singld 
sipped: sipt 
siphon: sifon
sithe,see scythe 
sizable: sizabl 
sketch: skech / sketched: skecht 
skiff: skif
skill: skil / skilled: skild 
skimmed: skimd 
skinned: skind 
skipped: skipt 
skull: skul / skulled: skuld
slacked: slackt
slackened: slackend
slammed: slamd
slapped: slapt
slaughter: slauter
slaughtered: slauterd
sleeve: sleev
sleeved: sleevd
slidden: slidn
slipped: slipt
slivered: sliverd
slouched: sloucht
slough: sluf
sloughed: sluft
slumbered: slumberd
slurred: slurd
smacked: smackt
smashed: smasht
smeared: smeard
smell: smel
smelled: smeld, smelt
smirked: smirkt
smoothed: smoothd
smuggle: smugl
smuggled: smugld
snaffle: snafl
snapped: snapt
snarled: snarld
snatch: snach
snatched: snacht
sneaked: sneakt
sneered: sneerd
sneeze: sneez
sneezed: sneezd
sniff: snif
sniffed: snift 
snivel: snivel
sniveled, snivelled: sniveld 
snooze: snooz
snoozed: snoozd
snowed: sznoud
snubbed: snubd
snuff: snuf
snuffed: snuft
snuffle: snufl
snufled: snzzfld
snuggle: snugl
snuggled: snugld 
soaked: soakt
soaped: soapt 
soared: soard 
sobbed: sobd 
sobered: soberd 
sodden: sodn 
softened: softend 
soiled: soild 
sojourn: sojurn / sojourned: sojurnd / sojourner: sojurner 
soldered: solderd
soluble: solubl
solutive: solutiv
solve: solv
solved: solvd 
sombre, somber: somber 

some: sum
-some: -sum
somebody: sumbody 
somersault, sumersault: sumersault
somerset: sumerset 
somehow: sumhow 
something: sumthing 

son: sun
sophism: sofism / sophist: sofist / sophisticate: sofisticate / sophistry: sofistry 
sophomore: sofomore / sophomoric: sofomoric 
soured: sourd
source: sourse 
southerly: sutherly / southern: suthern / southron: suthron 
sovereign: sovren / sovereignty: soverenty 
sowed: sowd
spanned: spand 
spangle: spangl 
spangled: spangld 
spanked: spankt 
sparred: spard
sparkle: sparkl / sparkled: sparkld 
spattered: spatterd 
speared: speard 
specked: speckt
speckle: speckl / speckled: speckld 
spectacle: spectacl 
spectacles: spectacls 
specter, spectre: specter 
spell: spel
spelled: speld
spewed: spewd 
sphenoid: sfenoid 
sphere: sfere
spherical: sferical 
spherics: sferics 
spheroid: sferoid 
spherule: sferule 
sphinx: sfinx
spill: spil
spilled: spild, spilt 
spindle: spindl 
spindled: spindld 
spittle: spittl
splashed: splasht 
spoiled: spoild, spoilt
sponge: spunge 
sprained: spraind 
sprawled: sprawld 
spread: spred 
spright: sprite / sprightly: spritely 
spurred: spurd 
spurned: spurnd 
sputtered: sputterd 
squawl: squawl 
squandered: squanderd 
squeaked: squeakt 
squealed: squeald 
squeeze: squeez / squeezed: squeezd 
stackt: stackt
staff: staf
stained: staind
stalled: stalld 
stammered: stammerd 
stamped: stampt 
stanched: stancht 
starred: stard
startle: startl
startled:, startld
starve: starv
starved: starvd
stayed: stayd
stead: sted
steadfast: stedfast
steady: stedy
stealth: stelth
steamed: steamd
steeped: steept
steeple: steepl
steered: steerd
stemmed: stemd
stenographic: stenografic / stenographer: stenografer / stenography: stenografy
suckle: suckl
surveyed: surveyd 
swaddle: swaddl
stepped: stept
sterile: steril
stewed: stewd
stickle: stickl stickled: stickld 
stiff: stif / stiffened: stiffend 
still: stil
stilled: stild
stirred: stird
stitch: stich
stitched: sticht 
stocked: stockt 
stomach: stumac / stomached: stumact / stomachic: stumachic 
stooped: stoopt 
stopped: stopt
stopple: stopl 
stormed: stormd
stowed: stowd
straddle: stradl
straddled: stradld
straggle: stragl
straggled: stragld
strained: straind
strangle: strangl
strangled: strangld
strapped: strapt
streaked: streakt, streaked, a:
strengthened: strengthend 
stretch: strech stretched: strecht 
stricken : strickn 
stripped: stript
striven : strivn
stroll: strol
strolled: strolld, strold 
stubble: stubl
stuff: stuf, stufs
stuffed: stuft
stumped: stumpt 
stuttered: stutterd
subjective: subjectiv 
subjunctive: subjunctiv 
submissive: submissiv 
subtile: subtil
subtle: sutl
subtly: sutly
subversive: subversiv
successive: successiv
succor, succour: succor / succored, succoured: succord
succumb: succum / succumbed: succumd
sucked: suckt
suckle: suckl / suckled: suckld
suffered: sufferd
suffixed: suffixt
suffuse: suffuze 
suggestive: suggestiv 
suitable: suitabl 
sulphate: sulfate / sulphur: sulfur / sulphurate: sulfurate / sulphuret: sulfuret / sulphuric: sulfuric / sulphurous: sulfurous 
summed: sumd 
sundered: sunderd 
superlative: superlativ 
supple: supl
suppressed: supprest 
suppurative: suppurativ 
surcingle: surcingl 
surpassed: surpast 
surprise: surprize
surveyed: surveyd
swaddle: swaddl
swagged: swagd
swallowed: swallowd
swamped: swampt
swayed: swayd
sweat: swet
sweetened: sweetend
swell: swel / swelled: sweld
sweltered: swelterd
swerve: swerv / swerved: swervd 
swollen, swoln: swoln 
swooned: swoond 
sylph: sylf 
synagogue: synagog

tabernacle: tabernacl 
tacked: tackt
tackle: tackl / tackled: tackld 
tactile: tactil
tagged: tagd 
talked: talkt
talkative: talkativ 
tanned: tand 
tangible: tangibl
tapped: tapt 
tapered: taperd 
tarred: tard
tariff: tarif 
tasseled: tasseld 
tattered: tatterd 
tattle: tatl / tattled: tatld 
taxed: taxt / taxable: taxabl 
teachable: teachabl 
teemed: teemd
telegraph: telegraf / telegraphed:telegraft / telegraphic: telegrafic / telegraphy: telegrafy 
telephone: telefone / telephonic: telefonic 
tell: tel
tempered: temperd 
temple: templ
tenable: tenabl 
tendered: tenderd 
termed: termd
terrible: terribl 
thanked: thankt 
thawed: thawd
theater, theatre: theater 
themselves: themselvs 
thence: thense 
thickened: thickend
thieve: thiev / thieved: thievd 
thimble: thimbl 
thinned: thind 
thistle: thistl 
thorough: thuro 
though, tho': tho 
thrashed: thrasht 
thread: thred 
threat: thret / threaten: threten / threatened: thretnd 
thrill: thril / thrilled: thrild 
throbbed: throbd
thronged: throngd 
throttle: throtl / throttled: throtld 
through, thro': thru / throughout: thruout 
thrummed: thrumd 
thumb: thum / thumbed: thumd 
thumped: thumpt 
thundered: thunderd 
thwacked: thwackt 
ticked: tickt
tickle: tickl / tickled: tickld 
tierce: tierse
till: til
tillable: tillabl / tilled: tild
tinned: tind 
tingle: tingl / tingled: tinzgld 
tinkered: tinkerd 
tinkle: tinkl / tinkled: tinkld 
tipped: tipt 
tipple: tipl / tippled: tipld 
tipstaff: tipstaf 
tiresome: tiresum 
tisic: see phthisic
tittered: titterd 
tittle: titl
toiled: toild / toilsome: toilsum 
tolerable: tolerabl 
tolled: tolld, told 
ton: tun
tongue: tung / tongued: tungd
toothed: tootht / toothache: toothake 
topple: topl
toppled: topld 
topographer: topografer / topography: topografy
tossed, tost: tost 
tottered: totterd 
touch: tuch / touched: tucht / touchy: tuchy 
tough: tuf / toughen: tufen / toughened: tufend 
towed: tzwd 
toyed:- toyd 
traceable: traceabl 
tracked: trackt 
tractable: tractabl 
trafficked: traffickt 
trailed: traild 
trained: traind 
tramped: trampt / trample: trampl / trampled: trampld 
trance: transe
tranquilize, tranquillise: tranquilize
transferred: transferd
transformed: transformd
transfuse: transfuze
transmissive: transmissiv
trapped: trapt
trapanned: trapand
traveled, travelled: traveld / traveler, traveller: traveler
treacherous: trecherous
treachery: trechery 
treacle: treacl
tread: tred / treadle: tredl 
treatise: treatis 
treasure: trezure / treasurer: trezurer / treasury: trezury 
treble: trebl 
tremble: trembl / trembled: trembld 
trenched: trencht 
trepanned: trepand 
trespassed: trespast 
trestle: trestl, tressel 
tricked: trickt 
trickle: trickl / trickled: trickld
triglyph: triglyf
trill: tril
trilled: trild
trimmed: trimd 
tripped: tript
triple: tripl
tripled: tripld 
triumph: triumf / triumphed: triumft / triumphal: triumfal / triumphant: triumfant
trodden: trodn 
trooped: troopt 
trouble: trubl / troubled: trubld 
troublesome: trublsum / troublous: trublous
trough: trof 
trucked: truckt 
truckle: truckl / truckled: truckld 
trumped: trumpt 
tucked: tuckt 
tugged: tugd 
tumble: tumbl / tumbled: tuumbld 
turned: turnd 
turtle: turtl 
twaddle: twaddl 
twanged: twangd 
tweaked: tweakt
twelve: twelv
twill: twil
twilled: twild 
twinkle: twinkl / twinkled: twinkld
twirled: twirld
twitch: twich / twitched: twicht
twittered: twitterd
typographer: typografer / typographical:typografical / typography: typografy

un-: negativ prefix: see the simpl forms.
uncle: uncl 
unwonted: unwunted 
use, v: uze
usual: uzual
uterine: uterin

vaccine: vaccin
valuable: valuabl / valve: valv
vamped: vampt 
vanished: vanisht 
vanquished: vanquisht 
vapor, vapour: vapor / vapored, vapoured: vapord 
variable: variabl 
vegetable: vegetabl / vegetative: vegetativ 
vehicle: vehicl
veil: veil
veiled: veild 
veined: veind 
veneered: veneerd 
ventricle: ventricl 
veritable: veritabl 
versed: verst
versicle: versicl 
vesicle: vesicl 
viewed: viewd
vigor, vigour: vigor 
vindictive: vindictiv 
vineyard: vinyard 
visible: visibl 
vocative: vocativ 
volatile: volatil 
vouched: voucht

wafered: waferd 
wagged: wagd 
wagered: wagerd 
waggle: wagl / waggled: wagd 
wailed: waild 
waive: waiv / waived: waivd 
walked: walkt 
warred: ward 
warble: warbl / warbled: warbld
warmed: warmd
washed: washt
watch: wach / watched: wacht 
watered: waterd 
waxed: waxt 
weakened: weakend 
wealth: welth / wealthy: welthy 
weaned: weand 
weapon: wepon 
weather: wether / weathered: wetherd 
weave: weav 
webbed: webd 
weened: weend 
welcome: welcum / welcomed: welcumd 
well: wel
welled: weld 
were: wer
wheeled: wheeld 
wheeze: wheez / wheezed: wheezd 
whence: whense 
whimpered: whimperd 
whipped: whipt
whir, whirr: whir / whirred: whird 
whirled: whirld 
whisked: whiskt 
whispered: whisperd 
whistle: whistl / whistled: whistld 
whizzed: whizd 
whole: hole / wholesale: holesale / wholesome: holesum / wholly: holely 
whooped: whoopt 
will: wil
willed: willd, wild 
willful, wilful: wilful 
wimble: wimbl
winged: wingd
winked: winkt
winnowed: winnowd
wintered: winterd
wished: wisht
witch: wich / witched: wicht 
withered: witherd 
withholden: withholdn 
women: wimen
won: wun
wonder: wunder / wondered: wunderd / wonderful: wunderful / wondrous: wundrous
wont: wunt / wonted: wunted 
wooden: wooden 
worm: wurm / wormed: wurmd 
worry: wurry
worse: wurse 
worship: wurship / worshiped, worshipped: wurshipt
worst: wurst
worth: wurth / worthless: wurthless / worthy: wurthy 
wrangle: wrangl / wrangled: wrangld
wrapped: wrapt 
wreaked: wreakt 
wrecked: wreckt 
wrenched: wrencht 
wrestle: wrestl / wrestled: wrestld 
wretch: wrech / wretched: wreched 
wriggle: wrigl / wriggled: wrigld 
wrinkle: wrinkl / wrinkled: wrinkld 
written: writn

xanthine: xanthin 
xylography: xylografy

yawned: yawnd 
yeaned: yeand 
yearn: yern / yearned: yernd 
yell: yel / yelled: yeld 
yeoman : yoman 
yerked: yerkt
young: yung
zealot: zelot / zealous: zelous 
zephyr: zefyr
zincography: zincografy 
zoography: zoografy