Monday, September 22, 2014

List of New Spellings A-M

Blog Foreword

Warning: Simplified and/or fonetic spelling ahed!

The following ar outtakes from two writs. The spelling in the writs is as it was written. One must keep in mind that the list is only a "partial" reform. The list at the end was never ment to be the last list as other spellings had yet to be workt out so that most folks wuud hold with them.

Indeed, I don’t hold with all the foresets below, huru the not-twaining (not doubling) of many consonants to show a short vowel. The untwaining of un-historical and unfonetic consonants such as in afford (aford) and allay (alay) ar good … hwich (which), hwile (while) in the writ, ar not on the list! However, I deem it better to twain consonants hwer (where) the twu stafs are said or it makes the foregoing vowel short.

I believ they wrongly drop the twain-p from apple (ap-pel) hwer both ar said and keep the twain-p in appeal (a-peal) on the list. The twu p's in appeal arn’t said and having twu p's is misleading (tho it is apeal in the writ, it’s not on the list). The first p in appel also helps show that the stress is on the first syllabel. Apple shuud be written as appel not apl. Apl is befuddling as it cuud be either appel or appeal. Thus, appel and apeal ar the better ways to write theze words. However, as the writ says: Less prejudice is excited by omissions than alterations of letters. Thus it is easier to drop the e and write littl than it is to get folks to write littel. In that befall, I would write appl rather than apl.

Oddly the list isn't steddy (consistent) in the way it handels sum words. It has foregon but (wrongly I think) drops the first e from forehead to forhed. The silent e on the forefast fore- does hav meaning. For-, fer- is an intensifier … often negativ; hweras fore- means before

The u is droppt to make garantee, gard, gess, gest, gild, and gilty, but oddly left in guize. On the list, stiff loses an f to stif, but stiffend keeps it. The s in measure becomes z, meszure everyhwer but in admesure. Theze unsteddinesses crop up in other words as well.

Overall, I don’t like the (w)holesale dropping of vowels like in givn (given) and I'd rather write littel, middel, asf rather than littl, middl … or worse, litl, midl as they do. Oddly, it is left in soveren rather than the weend sovrnThreten keeps the e hwile thretnd drops it. So one can see a few mor of the unsteddinesses of the list. Given that the list is sum 3500 words, one shuudn’t be amaz'd that ther ar a few such mistakes.

Sum words seem to hav shifted the way to say them sinse this list came out … mayhap pronunciation chasing spelling. Words like agile, bissextile, camomile, fissile, hostile, juvenile, mobile, nubile, respite, and many mor may be said with a short i or a long ī. Forbade is wuntedly said with a long ā. Iodine, oxide and palatine ar said with a ī. All of these are written on the list as if the is short.

Sadly, the list keeps up the raveling of the staf c. I strongly gainsay writing scimitar as cimitar and scissors as cissors … they shuud be simitar and sissors. Hwen dropping the h from sch for sk, it shuud be written sk. Thus I gainsay scolar, scolastic, scool, scooner … these shuud be skolar, skolastic, skool, and skooner. … Liken sked.

Thankfully, they did not fall into the fremless trap of trying to sunder the twu slightly otherly th sounds.

Ther ar many spelling oddnesses like the qu = qw or k; g = j, the fremless o in -ous, and others that need to be done over that, as far as I know, they never got to.

Many of the following spellings, I ween, not only do not help the unknowing to know how say the words, but may hinder them even mor (see apl abuv) and thus defeats the reason behind spelling reform. A spelling like apl is sheer pedantry and one needs to know how to say the word before ever reading it … otherwize one might say apul, apil … and may never gess the flat a (æ) at the beginning.

Ther ar many, many guud spellings in the following writs; however, I think many … like apl or fobd… put too much emfasis on shortness and trying to pijjenhole a spelling rather than keeping the end-reader in mynd.

Sum of the spellings, like arabesq / arabesk, aford, asf ar put forth in the body of the erlier writ but ar not on the later list.

The writs ar sumhwat edited for length otherwize they ar as written. The list however is given in full with any errors and oddnesses such as introduction: introduction, squawl: squawl. I don't know why these ar ther … maybe they ment to write squalled: squald. Nonetheless, I left them as is. The only editing of the list is to groop sum like words together to make the length a littel shorter.

So, without further ado:

The New Spellings of the Philological Society of London
F. A. March

Transactions of the American Philological Association (1869-1896), Vol. 12 (1881), pp. 52-68

Next follow "Details". They ar givn here in the language of the pamflet. Comments ar added in brackets. The lists of ilustrations ar not givn in full.

… There is no necessity that the corected words should be numerous; the great point is that they should be free from objection. But in fact sum of the corections ar open to ernest objection.

… The obstacls to reform ar the difficulty and inconvenience of change; but large changes hav been made and ar now going on. Much prejudice, however, is excited by unfamiliar forms of words, and this is a reazon for avoiding changes which ocur very often, such as ov for of, z for s in inflections, and the like. Less prejudice is excited by omissions than alterations of letters.

… Etymology and history. Etymological spelling, in its conventional sense, consists simply in retaining the fonetic spellings of an erlier period after they hav becum unfonetic.

Such a spelling destroys the materials on which etymological investigations ar based — namely, a continuous series of fonetic spellings.

Altho theze views ar now accepted by all filologists, an apeal to traditional spellings, in introducing a partial reform, has two uses: 
a. it afords a basis of agreement which may be otherwize wanting, as in the expulsion of the s of island; and 
b. afords a convenient principl of limitation. It also servs as a test of the sincerity of thoze who opoze reform solely on "etymological" grounds.

Sum "etymological" spellings ar incorect, as s in island; sum corect, as k in knee: classes of spellings ar often neutral. Silent e, for exampl, is neutral, since it is a mere chance whether it corresponds to an older vowel or not; so final silent b. It is very difficult, therefore, to giv rules on etymological grounds which wil not hav many exceptions


e. Silent e has no etymological value, and should be omitted wherever foneticaly useless, that is, wherever it does not lengthen a preceding vowel, and in sum other cases noticed below.

In the following words it is foneticaly misleading, being added to a short vowel followd by a singl consonant, and should therefor be dropt:

Above, abuv; are, ar; … ; come, cum; comes, cums; dove, duv;  give, giv; given, givn; gone, gon; have, hav; live, liv; lived, livd; love, luv; shove, shuv; some, sum; somewhat, sumwhat; vineyard, vinyard; welcome, welcum; were, wer.


In the following cases it is foneticaly useless.

It should be dropt after v and z preceded by a writn long vowel or a consonant, as in:

Aggrieve, agreev [agriev]; aggrieves, agreevs [agrievs]; aggrieved, agreevd [agrievd]; believe, beleev [believ]; calve, calv; carve, carv; cleave, cleav; curve, curv; involve, involv; leave, leav; move…, moov; nerve, nerv; perceive, perceiv; preserve, prezerv; prove …, proov; receive, receiv.

Frieze, freez [friez]; furze, furz; wheeze, wheez; adze, adz.

e should be dropt after s = z preceded by a consonant or writn long vowel, whether z is writn insted of the s or not:

Appease, apeaz; applause, aplauz; cheese, cheez; clause, clauz

Also in -dge,as in: Edge, edg; edged, edgd; knowledge, knowledg. Compare Edgware, acknowledgment. 

And in: Apse, aps; axe, ax; collapse, colaps; collapsed, colapst; glimpse, glimps; lapse, laps.

For -re write -er:
Centre, center; centres, centers; centred, centerd; lustre, luster; metre, meter; mitre, miter; nitre, niter; saltpetre, saltpeter; sceptre, scepter; sepulchre, sepulcher; spectre, specter; theatre, theater.

The change has alredy been made in (gas)meter, barometer, tiger, etc. [and in the other words by Webster and others].

The e of -le can be dropt
(a) where the l is preceded by two consonants, as in: Apostle, apostl; assemble, asembl; assembles, asembls; assembled, asembld; pebble, pebl; … ; single, singl;

(b) where l is preceded by a singl consonant with a short vowel before it: Couple, cupl; double, dubl;

(c) where a writn long vowel precedes, as in: Beadle, beadl; foible, foibl;

(d) in the terminations -able, -ible, and -icle, as in: Agreeable, agreeabl; article, articl; articles, articls; possible, possibl; probable, probabl; sensible, sensibl.

e can be dropt in -ine, -ise, -ite, -ive, -some, wherever the i or o is short, as in: Discipline, disciplin; doctrines, doctrins; examined, examind; feminine, feminin; practise, practis; promise, promis; treatise, treatis; premise, premis; definite, definit; favourite, favorit; infinite, infinit; opposite, opposit; motive, motiv; motives, motivs; repulsive, repulsiv; talkative, talkativ; handsome, handsum; quarrelsome, quarrelsum; tiresome, tiresum; wholesome, holesum.

Where the e modifies the preceding vowel (not necessarily by lengthening) in any way, it cannot be omitted: this is specialy the case after u, as in volume, soluble, nature, measure. The e coud be omitted after u in sum words, such as figure and injure, … 

e before a consonant is often dropt in -es and -ed …, of which many exampls ar givn abuv.

ea has the etymological value of simpl e, which preceded it in Midl English, and the a can be omitted in: Bread, bred; breadth, bredth; breakfast, brekfast; breast, brest; breath, breth; …; cleanse, clenz; dead, ded; deaf, def; dearth, derth; death, deth; dread, dred; dreamed[?], dremt; earl, erl; early, erly; earn, ern; earnest, ernest; earth, erth; endeavour, endevor; feather, fether; head, hed; health, helth; heard, herd; hearse, herse; heaven, heven; heavy, hevy; jealous, jelous; lead, sb., led; leaned[?], lent; learn, lern; leaped, lept; leather, lether; leaven, leven; meadow, medow; meant, ment; measure, mezure; pearl, perl; peasant, pezant; pheasant, fezant; pleasant, plezant; pleasure, plezure; read, prt., red; ready, redy; realm, relm; rehearse, reherse; search, serch; spread, spred; stead, sted; steady, stedy; stealth, stelth; sweat, swet; thread, thred; threat, thret; threaten, threten; treachery, trechery; tread, tred; treadle, tredl; treasure, trezure; wealth, welth; weapon, wepon; weather, wether; yearn, yern; zealous, zelous.

Where ea has the sound of a, the analogy of hark justifies us in omitting the e, thereby restoring frequent Tudor spellings: Hearken, harken; heart, hart; hearth, harth.

eau. The older spelling of beauty should be restord: Beauty, beuty.

ei. The e of height is useless: Height …, hiht.

eo. Where eo has the sound of e, the older spellings should be restord: jeopardy, jepardy; leopard, lepard;…  
In yeoman the e is useless.

i. The unhistorical i of parliament should be dropt: Parliament, parlament. The commonest Midl English spelling is parlement.

o. The Tudor oo should be restord in: Behove, behoov; lose, looz; move, moov; prove,
proov. [It is better not to urge oo for an u-sound; pruve is a better spell-
ing than proov, and we need not yet despair of it.]

In the following the Old English and Old French u should be restord: Above (abuv), affront (afrunt), attorney (aturney), borough (buroh) [?], colour (culor) [?], come, comfit,comfrey, comfort (cumfort), companion (cumpanion), company, compass, conjuror (cunjuror), constable, covenant, cover, covet, covey, discomfit, dove, dozen, front, govern, honey,love, money, mongrel, monk, monkey, plover, pommel, shove, shovel, some, son, sponge, stomach, thorough (thuroh) [?], ton, tongue (tung), won, wonder, worm, worry, worse, worship, worst, worth.

In women (O.E. wifmenn) original i should be restord.

ou. The Old English and Old French u should be restord in: Adjourn (ajurn), bourgeon (burgeon), country, couple (cupl), couplet, courage, cousin, double, enough (enuf), flourish, journal, journey, …, nourish, rough (ruf), scourge, southerly, southern, through (thru), touch, touching, tough (tuf), trouble (trubl).

The ou in enough and tough has no historical value, and may therefor be made fonetic; …

In -ough the u is useless (O.E. bohte, dohte, etc.): Bought, boht; brought, broht; fought, foht; ought, oht; sought, soht; though, tho; thought, thoht; wrought, wroht.
In -our the dropping of the u should be carried out everywhere [as in Webster and Worcester].

u after g in nativ English words is unetymological, and is not more required in guess, etc., than in get, gill, girdle, give, etc. The u in guarantee and guard is no more required than in regard and gage.

Guarantee, garantee; guard, gard; guardian, gardian; guess, gess; guest, gest; guild, gild; guilt, gilt.


Silent u should be dropt after q, conquer being thus distinguisht from conquest:

Silent ue should be dropt after q wherever the u is silent and the e not required for lengthening: Arabesque, arabesq; arabesques, arabesqs; burlesque; burlesqued, burlesqt; casque; cheque, cheq [check]; cinque, cinq; grotesque, grotesq; mosque, mosq.
ue is not more required in the English cinque that in the French cinq. 
[… Better put in k (arabesk) …]

ue is historicaly useless (due to the influence of Modern French spelling) in the following words after g and should be dropt: Apologue (apolog), catalogue, colleague, decalogue, demagogue, dialogue, eclogue, epilogue, harangue (harang), league, monologue, mystagogue, pedagogue, prologue, synagogue, tongue (tung).


There ar many words beginning with unaccented prefixes in which the analogy of Latin words like accuse, commit, immure, has led to an unhistorical dubling. Such words as account, allow, arrive, attack, and many others, wer taken straiht from Old French, where they had singl consonants, the dubling, being a later etymological fancy. In such words as affront and affair, from a front, a faire, it is based on sheer ignorance; as also in the nativ English words, accursed, afford, affright, from Old English acursod, aforðian, afyrht. In short, this dubling has litl or no etymological value, … Abbreviate, abreviate; accuse, acuze; …; address, adress; adjust, ajust; affair, afair; arrange, assist, attack, command, commit, connect, etc.

Acquit, adjust, etc., ar, of course, equivalent to accwit, addzhust.

The dubl consonants must be kept in accented syllabls, as in aggravate.

Consonants may, of course, be dubld or kept dubl where necessary or convenient, as in detter for debtor, added, whizzing.

b is etymologicaly wrong in debt, doubt, subtle, which cum from the Old French dete, doute, sutil, theze being also the older English spellings. The b in -mb is etymologicaly useless, having often been added without reazon, as in limb = Old English lim: Bomb, bom; crumb, crum; debt, det; debtor, detter; doubt; dumb; lamb; limb, lim; numb; plumb, plumber, plummer; redoubt, redout; subtle, sutl; succumb, sucum; thumb, thum.

Detter is a frequent Tudor spelling. … 

c. Initial c in cinder, from Old English sinder, is due to a mistaken etymology from French cendre.

Medial c is writn unetymologicaly for s in a large number of words, …: Cinder, sinder; expence, expense; fierce, feerse [fierse]; hence, hense; once, onse; pence, pense; scarce, scarse; since, sinse; source, sourse; thence, thense; tierce, teerse [tierse]; whence, whense.
ch. For ache the older ake should be restord. anchor was spelt anker in erlier English: it has been refashiond after the Latin anchora, itself a corupt spelling of Greek agkara. The h in chamomile, cholet; cholera (cf. colic), melancholy, school, stomach, is a late insertion paralel to that of b in debt: in Midl English theze words wer writn camomille, coler(ik), melancolie, scole, stomak. … 

d. The dropping of the e of -ed involvs the change of d into t after a voiceless consonant, together with the simplification of dubl consonants. Barred, bard; crossed, crost; erred, erd; looked, lookt; pulled, puld; rained, raind; restored …, restord; slipped, slipt; tugged, tugd; whizzed, whizd.

g is a late insertion in feign (cf. feint), foreign, sovereign (on the analogy of reign, with which it is totaly unconected). Feign, fein; foreign, forein [foren]; sovereign, soverein [soveren].
It has been propozed to restore Milton’s sovran, …  The best spelling is soveren, foren.]

gh. The h is etymologicaly useless in aghast, burgh, ghost (O.E. gast). gh in night, etc., is a late and clumzy substitute for Old English h (niht, dohtor, etc.). The g should be omitted wherever gh is silent. Where gh = f, it may either be provizionaly retaind or else changed as has alredy been done in draft = draught, and, at an erlier period, in dwarf from Old English dweorhz.

Aghast, agast; daughter, dauhter [dauter]; delight, delite; eight, eiht [eit]; ghost, gost; haughty, hauty; …; height, hiht; night, niht …; plough, plouh [plow]; sprightly, spritely; straight, straiht [strait]; thorough, thuroh [thuro]; though, tho; through, thru; weight, weiht [weit]. … 

1 dropt in could (Old E. cuðe), which ows it to the false analogy of would and should, where it is historical:
p in receipt is a modern insertion, which has not been made in the paralel conceit, deceit,etc.
ph for v in nephew is unmeaning, … . 
s is wrongly inserted in aisle (O.F. ele), demesne, island (O.E. igland), isle.
Aisle, aile; demesne, demene; island, iland; isle, ile … .

The retention of s = z is the cheef obstacl to the regulation of silent e (p. 59). As the change of inflectional s in such words as dens, gives, would involv a disproportionately large number of alterations, it is advizabl to leav it unchanged at first, as also in very common words, such as as, is, was.

The change is especialy recomended, 1, in distinctiv words, such as use (verb); and 2, in the termination -ise:
Abuse vb., abuze; advertise, advertize; choose, chooz; chosen, chozen; close vb., cloze; diffuse vb., difuze; dissolve, dizolv; excuse vb., excuze; house vb., houz; mouse vb., mouz; pleasure, plezure; raise, raiz; refuse vb., refuze; rise, rize.

z is alredy in use in freeze, frozen (tho not in choose, chosen), in size, furze, civilize, etc. Besides its purely fonetic use in nativ English words, it is always writn both foneticaly and etymologicaly in Greek words. Hense sum object to the spelling analyze (Gk. analysis) as unetymological; but the question is simply whether we ar to carry out the English fonetic or the Greek etymological use of z: if the latter, we must write freese, sise, etc.; if the former, analyze.

sc. The c is eroneously inserted in scent (Fr. sentir) and scythe (O.E. siðe): Scent, sent; sceptic, skeptic …; scythe, sithe.


w is unetymological in whole (O.E. hal; cf. heal). Whole, hole.


The following changes wer advocated by so large a majority that it was thoht advizabl to include them among the imediate reforms, … .

gh. Substitute f for gh where so pronounced, as has alredy been done in draft … and dwarf: Chough, chuf; cough, cof; draught, draft; enough, enuf; laugh, laf; laughter, lafter; rough, ruf; slough, sluf; tough, tuf; trough, trof.

The vowels in theze words hav but litl historical value. The u in most of them, such as cough, laugh, trough, is not original; cf. O. E. cohhettan, hlihhan, trog; enough, tough = O.E. genoh, toh, rough = ruh.

ph. If f wer substituted for ph everywhere, as in Italian, Spanish, and the Scandinavian languages, a letter would be saved, and etymology would not be apreciably obscured: Blaspheme, blasfeme; camphor, camfor; phantasm, fantasm; philosophy, filosofy; photograph, fotograpf; sphere, sfere.
With phantasm cf. fancy.

List of Amended Spellings

Transactions of the American Philological Association (1869-1896), Vol: 17 (1886), pp: 127-149

1. e. — Drop silent e when fonetically useless, writing -er for -re, as in live, single, eaten, rained, theatre, etc.
2. ea. — Drop a from ea having the sound of e, as in feather, leather, etc.
3. o. — For o having the sound of u in but write u in above (abuv), tongue (tung), and the like.
4. ou. — Drop o from ou having the sound of u in but in trouble, rough (ruf), and the like; for -our unaccented write -or, as in honour.
5. u, ue. — Drop silent u after g before a, and in nativ English words, and drop final ue: guard, guess, catalogue, league, etc.
6. Dubl consonants may be simplified when fonetically useless: bailiff, (not hall, etc.), battle (batl), written (writn), traveller, etc. 
7. d. — Change d and ed final to t when so pronounced, as in looked (lookt), etc., unless the e affects the preceding sound, as in chafed, etc.
8. gh, ph. — Change gh and ph to f when so sounded: enough (enuf), laughter (lafter), etc.; phonetic (fonetic), etc.
9. s. — Change s to z when so sounded, especially in distinctiv words and in -ise: abuse, verb (abuze), advertise (advertize), etc.
10. t. — Drop t in tch: catch, pitch, etc.

The following is a synopsis of all the changes:
au: a.
b dropt. 
 bb: b.
c: s. 
ch: c. 
    : k.
dd: d. 
d: t.
e dropt. 
ea: e. 
    : a. 
eau: eu.
-ed: d, t. 
ei: i.
en: n.
eo: e. 
    : o. 
ff: f.
g dropt 
 gg: g. 
 gh: g. 
 gh dropt. 
 gh: ck. 
 gh: f. 
h dropt. 
i dropt.
ie: i. 
   : e.
-ine: in. 
-ise: is. 
      : ize. 
-ite: it.
-ive: iv.
l dropt. 
 -ll: l. 
 -le: l.
-nn: n
o: u.
  : i.
ou: u. 
    : o.
p dropt. 
ph: f. 
    : v.
-rr: r. 
 -re: er.
s dropt 
sc-: s. 
    : c. 
    : sk. 
-se: s. 
    : ze, z. 
-some: sum.
-tt: t
tch: ch.
u dropt.
ue dropt. 
-ve: v.
w dropt. 
y: i.
-zz: z. 
ze: z.


abandoned: abandond 
abashed: abasht 
abhorred: abhor-d 
ablative: ablativ
-able, unaccented: -abl 
abolishable: abolishabl 
abolished: abolisht 
abominable: abominabl 
abortive: abortiv 
above: abuv
abreast: abrest
absolve: absolv
absolved: absolvd 
absorbed: absorbd 
absorbable: absorbabl 
absorptive: absorptiv 
abstained: abstaind 
abstractive: abstractiv 
abuse, v: abuze 
abusive: abusiv 
accelerativ acceptable: 
acceptabl accessible: 
accommodative: accomodativ
accompaniment: accumpaniment
accompany: accumpany
accountable: accountabl 
affirmable: affirmabl 
accumulative: accumulativ 
affirmative: affirmativ 
accursed: accurs-ed, accurst
accusative: accusativ 
accustomed: accustomd 
acephalous: acefalous 
ache, ake: ake 
achievable: achievabl 
achieve: achiev 
achieved: achievd 
acquirable: acquirabl 
acquisitive: acquisitiv 
actionable: actionabl active: activ
adaptable: adaptabl 
adaptive: adaptiv
add: ad
addle: adl
addled: adld 
addressed:: addrest 
adhesive: adhesiv 
adjective: adjectiv 
adjoined: adjoind 
adjourn: adjurn 
adjourned: adjurnd 
adjunctive: adjunctiv
adjustable: adjustabl 
admeasure: admesure 
administered: administerd
administrative: administrativ
admirable: admirabl 
admissible: admissibl 
admixed: admixt 
admonished: admonisht 
admonitive: admonitiv
adoptive: adoptiv 
adorable: adorabl 
adorned: adornd 
adulterine: adulterin 
adventuresome: adventuresum
adversative: adversativ
advertise, -ize: advertize
advertisement: advertizement, advertizment 
advisable: advizabl 
advise: advize [verb]
advisement: advizement advisory: advizory
adze, adz: adz 
affable: affabl 
affective: affectiv
affirmed: affirmd 
affirmable: affirmabl 
affirmative: affirmativ
affixed: affixt
afflictive: afflictiv affront: affrunt
afront, adv: afrunt 
agglutinative: agglutinativ
aggressive: aggressiv
aggrieve: aggriev / aggrieved: aggrievd 
aghast: agast
agile: agil
agreeable: agreeabl 
ahead: ahed
ailed: aild
aimed: aimd
aired: aird
aisle: aile
alarmed: alarmd 
alienable: alienabl 
alimentiveness: alimentivness
allayed: allayd 
alliterative: alliterativ 
allowed: allowd 
allowable: allowabl
alloyed: alloyd 
allusive: allusiv
alpha: alfa 
alphabet: alfabet
already: alredy
alterable: alterabl 
altered: alterd
alterative: alterativ 
alternative: alternativ 
although: altho
alumine, alumin: alumin 
amaranthine: amaranthin 
amassed: amast
amative: amativ
amble: ambl
ambled: ambld 
ambushed: ambusht 
amenable: amenabl 
amethystine: amethystin
amiable: amiabl
amicable: amicabl 
amorphous: amorfous
amphibia: amfibia 
amphibian: amfibian 
amphibious: amfibious 
amphibrach: amfibrach 
amphitheater, -tre: amfitheater 
ample: ampl
amplificative: amplificativ 
amusive: amusiv
anaglyph: anaglyf 
analogue: analog 
analyze, analyse: analyze 
anapest, anapaest: anapest 
anchor: anker / anchored: ankerd 
anchorage: ankerage 
angered: angerd
angle: angl 
angled: angld
anguished: anguisht 
anise: anis
ankle: ankl 
annealed: anneald 
annexed: annext 
annoyed: annoyd 
annulled: annuld 
answered: answerd
anthropophagy: anthropofagy
anticipative: anticipativ 
antiphony: antifony 
antiphrasis: antifrasis 
antistrophe: antistrofe 
aphyllous: afyllous
apocalypse: apocalyps
apocrypha: apocryfa
apocryphal: apocryfal
apologue: apolog
apostle: apostl
apostrophe: apostrofe
apostrophize: apostrofize 
appalled: appalld 
appareled,-elled: appareld 
appealable: appealabl 
appealed: appeald 
appeared: appeard 
appeasable: apeasabl 
appellative: appellativ 
appertained: appertaind 
apple: apl
applicable: applicabl 
applicative: applicativ 
appointive: appointiv 
apportioned: apportiond 
appreciable: appreciabl 
appreciative: appreciativ 
apprehensible: apprehensibl
approachable: approachabl
approached: approacht 
approvable: approvabl 
approximative: approximativ
aquiline: aquilin, -ine 
arable: arabl
arbitrable: arbitrabl 
arbor, arbour: arbor 
arched: archt 
ardor,ardour: ardor
are: ar
argumentative: argumentativ
arise: arize
arisen: arizn 
armor,armour: armor / armored, armoured: armord
arose: aroze arraigned:' arraignd
arrayed: arrayd
article: articl 
artisan, artizan: artizan 
asbestine: asbestin 
ascendable: ascendabl 
ascertained:: ascertaind 
ascribable: ascribabl 
asphalt,: asfalt
asphyxia: asfyxia 
assailable: assailabl 
assailed:: assaild 
assayed: assayd
assemble: assembl 
assembled: assembld 
assertive: assertiv 
assessed: assest 
assigned: assignd 
assignable: assignabl
assimilative: assimilativ
associable: associabl
associative: associativ
assumptive: assumptiv 
astonished: astonisht
atmosphere: atmosfere 
atmospheric: atmosferic
atrophy: atrofy
attached: attacht 
attacked: attackt 
attainable: attainabl 
attained: attaind 
attempered: attemperd 
attentive: attentiv 
attractive: attractiv 
attributable: attributabl 
attributive: attributiv 
audible: audibl 
augmentative: augmentativ
auricle: auricl
authoritative: authoritativ
autobiographer: autobiografer
autobiography: autobiografy
autograph: autograf 
available: availabl 
availed: availd 
avalanche: avalanch 
averred: averd 
avoidable: avoidabl 
avouched: avoucht 
avowed: avovwd 
awakened: awakend 
awe: aw
awed: awd
awsome, awesome: awsum 
ax, axe: ax
axle: axl
ay, aye: ay

babble: babl
babbled: babld
backed: backt 
backslidden : backslidn 
bad, bade, pret:: bad 
baffle: bafl
baffled: bafld 
bagatelle: bagatel 
bailable: bailabl 
bailed: baild 
bailiff: bailif 
baize: baiz
balked: balkt
balled: balld
banged: bangd 
banished: banisht 
bankable: bankabl 
banked: bankt
bantered: banterd 
barbed: barbd 
bareheaded: bareheded 
bargained: bargaind 
barnacle: barnacl 
barreled, -elled: barreld
barreling, -elling: barreling
bartered: barterd 
basked: baskt 
batch: bach 
battered: batterd 
battle: batl 
battled: batld 
bauble: baubl 
bawled: bawld 
bayoneted, -etted: bayoneted
beadle: beadl [bedel]
beagle: beagl
beaked: beakt
beanned: beamd 
bearable: bearabl
beaten: beatn
beauteous: beuteous 
beautify: beutify 
beautiful, beutiful 
beauty: beuty
becalmed: becalmd 
beckoned: beckond 
become: becum
becoming: becuming 
bedabble: bedabl / bedabbled: bedabld 
bedecked: bedeckt 
bedeviled, -illed: bedevild 
bedewed: bedewd 
bedimmed: bedimd 
bedraggle: bedragl / bedraggled: bedragld 
bedrenched: bedrencht 
bedridden: bedridn
bedropped: bedropt 
bedstead: bedsted 
beetle: beetl 
beeves: beevs
befall: befalln 
befell: befel 
befooled: befoold 
befouled: befould 
befriend: befrend 
begged: begd 
begone: begon 
begotten: begotn
behavior,-our: behavior 
behead: behed 
belabor,belabour: belabor / belabored,belaboured: belabord
belayed: belayd 
belched: belcht 
beldam, beldame: beldam
beleaguer: beleager / beleaguered: beleagerd 
believable: believabl 
believe: believ / believed: believd 
belittle: belitl / belittled: belitld
bell: bel 
belled: beld
belonged: belongd
beloved: beluv-ed, beluvd 
bemoaned: bemoand 
bemocked: bemockt 
benumb: benum / benumbed: benumd 
bequeathed: bequeathd 
bereave: bereav / bereaved: bereavd 
berhyme, berime: berime 
beseemed: beseemd 
besmeared: besmeard 
bespangle: bespangl / bespangled: bespangld 
bespattered: bespatterd 
bespread: bespred 
besprinkle: besprinkl / besprinkled: besprinkld 
bestirred: bestird 
bestowed: bestowd 
bestraddle: bestradl / bestraddled: bestradild 
betrothed: betrotht 
bettered: betterd 
beveled,bevelled: beveld / beveling, bevelling: beveling
bewailed: bewaild
bewildered: bewilderd 
bewitch: bewich / bewitched: bewicht 
bewrayed: bewrayd 
biased, biassed: biast 
bibliographer: bibliografer 
bibliography: bibliografy 
bicephalous: bicefalous 
bickered: bickerd 
bicolored, bicoloured: biculord
bilked: bilkt
bill: bil
billed: bild 
binnacle: binnacl
binocle: binocl biographer: biografer
biography: biografy 
bissextile: bissextil 
bister, bistre: bister 
bitten: bitn
bivalve: bivalv
blabbed. blabd
blackballed. blackballd
blacked. blackt
blacken: blackn
blackened: blackhd
blackguard: blackgard
black-lead: black-led
blackmailed. blackmaild
blamable: blamabl
blameworthy: blame- wurthy
blanched: blancht
blandished:: blandisht
blaspheme: blasfeme
bowline: bowlin 
boxed: boxt 
boxhauled: boxhauld
blasphemous: blasfemous
blasphemy: blasfemy 
bleached: bleacht
bleared: bleard
blemished: blemnisht 
blenched: blencht
blende: blend
blessed, blest : bless-ed, blest: 
blindworm: blindwurm 
blinked blinkt
blistered: blisterd 
blithesome: blithesum 
blocked: blockt blockhead: blockhed 
blond, blonde: blond 
bloomed: bloomd 
blossomed: blossomd 
blotch: bloch
blotched: blocht 
blubbered: blubberd 
blue: blu
bluff: bluf
bluffed: bluft 
blundered: blunderd
blunderhead: blunderhed
blurred: blurd 
blushed: blusht 
blustered: blusterd 
boatable: boltabl 
bobbed: bobd bobtailed: 
bobtaild bodyguard: 
bodygard boggle: bogl
boggled: bogld 
boiled: boild 
bolthead: bolthed 
bomb: bom
bombazine, -sine: bombazine
bombshell: bomshel 
booked: bookt 
bookworm: bookwurm 
boomed: boomd
booze, boose: booz
boozy, boosy: boozy
botch: boch
botched: bocht
bothered: botherd
bots, botts: bots
bottle: botl
bottled: bolld
bowed: bowd 
bowline: bowlin 
boxed: boxt
boxhauled: boxhauld
brachygraphy: brachygrafy
bragged: bragd
brained: braind 
bramble: brambl 
branched: brancht 
brangle: brangl / brangled: brangld 
brawled: brawld 
breached: breacht 
bread: bred
breadth: bredth 
breakfast: brekfast 
breast: brest
breath: breth 
breathable: breathabl 
breeze (wind): breez 
brewed: brewd 
bricked: brickt 
bridewell: bridewel 
briefed: brieft 
brighten: brightn / brightened: brightnd
brindle: brindl / brindled: brindld
bristled: bristld 
brittle: britl 
broached: broacht 
broaden: broadn 
broadened: broadnd 
broiled: broild 
bromine, bromin: bromin
bronze: bronz 
browned: brownd 
browse, browze, v:: browz / browse, n: browse 
brushed:: brusht 
bubble: bubl
bubbled: bubld 
bucked: buckt 
buckle: buckl / buckled: buckld 
buff: buf
build, bild: bild
building: bilding
built: bilt
bull: bul
bumble: bumbl 
bumped: bumpt 
bunched: buncht 
bundle: bundl
bundled: bundld
bungle: bungl bungled: bungld
bur, burr: bur
burden: burdn / burdened: burdnd 
burdensome: burdensum 
burg, burgh: burg 
burger, burgher: burger 
burled: burld 
burnished: burnisht 
burthen: burthn / burthened:burthnd 
bushed: busht
buskined: buskind 
bussed: bust
bustle: bustl
bustled: bustld
but, butt: but 
but-end, butt-end: but-end 
buttered: butterd 
buttoned: buttond 
buttressed: buttrest 
buxom: buxum
buzz: buz / buzzed: buzd 
by, bye, n:: by 
bygone: bygon

caballed: cabald 
cabined: cabind
cackle: cackl
cackled: cackld 
cacography: cacografy 
cacophony: cacofony 
caitiff: caitif
calculable: calculabl 
calendered: calenderd 
caliber, -bre: caliber 
calif, caliph, kalif, kaliph, etc:: calif or kalif 
calked: calkt
called: calld 
caligraphv: caligrafy 
calve: calv
calved: calvd
camomile, cham-: camomile 
camped: campt
camphene: camfene 
camphor: camfor 
canalled:- canald 
canceled,-elled: canceld
canceling, -elling: canceling
cancellation: cancelation 
candle: candl
candor, candour: candor 
cankered: cankerd 
cantered: canterd 
canticle: canticl 
capered: caperd
captive: captiv
carbuncle: carbuncl
careened: careend
careered: careerd
caressed: carest
carminative: carminativ
caroled,-olled: carold
caroling, -olling:- caroling 
carped: carpt 
caruncle: caruncl 
carve: carv carved: carvd 
cashiered:- cashierd 
caste: cast
castle: castl
catalogue: catalog / catalogued: catalogd / cataloguer: cataloger
catastrophe: catastrofe 
catch: cach
catechise: catechize 
catered: caterd 
caterwauled:- caterwauld 
cattle: catl
caucused, -ussed: caucust  / caucusing, -ussing: caucusing
caudle: caudl
causative: causativ cauterise, -ize: cauterize 
caviled, -illed: cavild / caviling, -illing: caviling 
cawed: cawd
cayenne: cayen
ceased: ceast
cedrine: cedrin
ceiled: ceild
cell: cel
celled: celd
cenotaph: cenotaf 
censurable: censurabl 
centre, center: center / centred: centerd 
centuple: centupl
cephalic: cefalic
cephalopod: cefalopod
cerography: cerografy
cess-pool, see sess-pool
chaff: chaf
chaffed: chaft 
chained: chaind
chaired: chaird
chalcography: chalcografy 
chalked: chalkt 
chambered: chamberd 
chamois: see shammy 
championed: championd 
changeable: changeabl 
channeled, -elled: channeld / channeling, -elling: channeling
chapped: chapt 
chargeable: chargeabl 
charitable: charitabl 
charmed: charmd
charred: chard
chastened: chastend
chastise: chastize 
chastizement: chastizment 
chasuble: chasubl 
chattered: chatterd 
cheapen: cheapn / cheapened: cheapnd 
checked: checkt 
cheered: cheerd 
cherished: cherisht 
chewed: chewd
chidden: chidn
chill: chil
chilled: chilld 
chincough: chincof 
chipped:- chipt 
chirograph: chirograf
chirography: chirografy
chirped: chirpt
chirruped: chirrupt 
chiseled, -elled: chiseld / chiseling,-elling: chiseling 
chloride: chlorid 
chlorine: chlorin
choler: coler
cholera: colera
choleric: coleric 
chopped: chopt 
chorography: chorografy 
chose: choze / chosen: chozen
chough: chuf
chronicle: chronicl / chronicled: chronicld 
chronograph: chronograf 
chucked: chuckt 
chuckle: chuckl
chuckled: chuckld 
chummed: chumd 
churched: churcht 
churned: churnd 
cimitar: see scimitar 
cinder: sinder 
cipher: cifer / cipherd:- ciferd 
circle: circl / circled: circld 
circumcise: circumcize 
circumvolve: circumvolv 
citrine, citrin: citrin 
cissors, see scissors 
clacked: clackt
claimed: claimd 
clambered: clamberd 
clamored: clamord 
clanked: clankt
clapped: clapt
clashed: clasht
clasped: claspt
classed: clast
clattered: clatterd clavicle: clavicl
clawed: clawd
cleaned: cleand / cleanliness: clenliness / cleanly: clenly
cleanse: clenz / cleansed: cleanzd 
cleared:: cleard
cleave: cleav
cleaved: cleavd
clerked: clerkt
clicked: clickt
climbed: climbd 
clinched: clincht 
clinked: clinkt
clipped: clipt
cloaked: cloakt 
cloistered: cloisterd 
close, v: cloze
closet: clozet
closure: clozure
clough: cluf
cloyed: cloyd
clubbed: clubd
clucked: cluckt 
clustered: clusterd 
clutched: clucht 
cluttered: clutterd 
coached: coacht 
coactive: coactiv
coaled: coald
coaxed: coaxt
cobble: cobl
cobbled: cobld
cocked: cockt
cockle: cockl
coddle: codl
coddled: codld
coercive: coerciv 
cogitative: cogitativ 
cohesive: cohesiv 
coined: coind
collapse: collaps / collapsed: collapst 
collared: collard 
colleague: colleag 
collective: collectiv 
collusive: collusiv
color: culor / colored: culord / colorable: culorabl 
coltered: colterd 
combed: combd 
combative: combativ 
combustible: combustibl 
come: cum, cums 
comeliness: cumliness 
comely: cumly
comfit: cumfit
comfort: cumfort / comfortable: cumfortabl 
comforter: cumforter 
coming: cuming 
commendable: commendabl
commensurable: commensurabl
commingle: commingl
commingled: commingld 
commixed: commixt 
communicative: communicativ
companion: cumpanion / companionable: cumpanionabl
companionship: cumpanionship
company: cumpany
comparable: comparabl
comparative: comparativ
compass: cumpass
compassed:, cumpast
compatible: compatibl
compelled: compeld
competitive: competitiv
complained: comGplaind
comportable: comportabl
composite: composit
comprehensive: comprehensiv
compressed: comprest
compressible: compressibl
compressive: compressiv  
compulsive: compulsiv 
computable: computab
concealed: conceald 
conceivable: conceivabl / conceive: conceiv / conceived: conceivd 
conceptive: conceptiv 
concerned: concernd 
concessive: concessiv 
conclusive: conclusiv 
concoctive: concoctiv 
concurred: concurd 
concussive: concussiv 
condensed: condenst 
conducive: conduciv 
confederative: confederativ
conferred: conferd 
confessed: confest
confirmed: confirmd / confirmable: confirmabl
confiscable: confiscabl
conformed: conformd 
confront: confrunt
congealed: congeald / congealable: congealabl 
conglutinative: conglutinativ
conjoined: conjoind 
conjunctive: conjunctiv 
connective: connectiv 
consecutive: consecutiv 
conservative: conservativ 
conserve: conserv 
considered: considerd 
considerable: considerabl
consigned: consignd 
consolable: consolabl 
constable: cunstabl 
constitutive: constitutiv 
constrainable: constrainabl
constrained: constraind 
constructive: constructiv 
contemplative: contemplativ
contemptible: contemptibl 
contractible: contractibl 
contractile: contractil 
contributive: contributiv 
controlled: controld 
controllable: controllabl 
conversed:: converst 
conveyed: conveyd 
convincible: convincibl 
convoyed: convoyd 
convulsive: convulsiv 
cooed: cood
cooked: cookt
cooled: coold
cooped: coopt
copse: cops
copulative: copulativ 
corked: corkt
corned: cornd
corrective: correctiv 
correlative: correlativ 
corroborative: corroborativ
corrosive: corrosiv
costive: costiv
cosy, cozy: cozy
couched: coucht
cough: cof
coughed: coft 
could: coud
councilor, councillor: councilor
counselor, counsellor: counselor
counter-marched: -marcht
countersigned: countersignd
country: cuntry 
couple: cupl,cupls / coupled: cupld 
couplet: cuplet 
coupling: cupling 
courage: curage / courageous: curageous 
courteous: curteous courtesan: curtesan
courtesy: curtesy 
cousin: cuzin 
covenant: cuvenant 
cover: cuver / covered: cuverd 
covert: cuvert 
covering: cuvering 
coverlet: cuverlet 
coverture: cuverture 
covet: cuvet 
covetous: cuvetous 
covey: cuvey 
cowed: cowd / cowered: cowerd 
cowled: cowld 
cozen: cuzen 
cozenage: cuzenage 
cosy, cozy: cozy 
cracked: crackt 
crackle: crackl / crackled: crackld 
crammed: cramd 
cramped: crampt 
crashed: crasht 
crawled: crawld 
creaked: creakt 
creamed: creamd 
creased: creast 
creative: creativ 
credible: credibl
crimped: crimpt 
crimple: crimpl
crimpled: crimpld
crinkle: crinkl
crinkled: crinzkld
cripple: cripl
crippled: cripld
crisped: crispt
criticise: criticize
croaked: croakt
crooked: crook-ed, crookt
crossed: crost 
crotched: crocht 
crouched: croucht 
crumb: crum / crumbed:-crumd 
crumble: crumbl 
crumbled: crumbld 
crumple: crumpl / crumpled: crumpld 
crushed: crusht 
crutch: cruch / crutched: crucht 
cuff: cuf / cuffed: cuft 
culled: culd
culpable: culpabl
cultivable: cultivabl
cumbered: cumberd
cumbersome: cumbersum 
cumulative: cumulativ
crimpled: crimpld
crinkle: crinkl
crinkled: crinzkld
cripple: cripl
crippled: cripld
crisped: crispt
criticise: criticize
croaked: croakt
crooked: crook-ed, crookt 
cupped: cupt 
curable: curabl 
curative: curativ 
curbed: curbd 
curled: curld
cursed: curs-ed, curst 
cursive: cursiv
curve: curv / curved: curvd
curvetting: curveting 
cuticle: cuticl 
cuttle-fish: cutl-fish

dabbed: dabd  
dabble: dabl / dabbled: dabld 
dactyle: dactyl 
daggle: dagl / daggled: dagld 
dammned: damd / damnable: damnabl 
damped: dampt
dandle: dandl / dandl dandld
dandruff, dandriff: dandruf, dandrif
dangle: dangl / dangled: dangld 
dapple: dapl / dappled: dapld 
darkened: darkend
darksome: darksum 
darned: darnd 
dashed: dasht 
dative: dativ 
daubed: daubd 
dauphin: daufin 
dawned: dawnd
dead: ded
deadened:- dedend
deadening:- dedening deadly: dedly
deaf: def or deaf
deafened: defend / deafening: defening / deafness: defness 
dealt: delt
dearth: derth
death: deth 
debarred: debard 
debarked: debarkt 
debatable: debatabl 
debt: det / debtor: dettor
decalogue: decalog
decamped: decampt 
decayed: decayd 
deceased: deceast 
deceive: deceiv / deceived: deceivd 
deceptive: deceptiv 
decipher: decifer / deciphered: deciferd 
decisive: decisiv
decked: deckt
declaimed: declaimd 
declarative: declarativ 
decolor: deculor / decolorize: deculorize 
decorative: decorativ 
decoyed: decoyd 
decreased: decreast 
decursive: deculsiv 
deducible: deducibl 
deductive: deductiv 
deemed: deemd 
deepened: deepend 
defeasible: defeasibl 
defective: defectiv 
defense, defence: defense / defensive: defensiv 
definite: definit / definitive: definitiv 
deformed: deformd
defrayed: defrayd 
deleble: delebl
delectable: delectabl 
deliberative: deliberativ 
delight: delite / delighted: delited 
delivered: deliverd 
dell: del
delusive: delusiv
demagogue: demagog
demandable: demandabl
demeaned: demeand 
demeanor, demeanour: demeanor
demesne: demene 
demolished: demolisht 
demonstrable: demonstrabl
demonstrative: demonstrativ
denominative: denominativ
deplorable: deplorabl
deployed: deployd
depressed: deprest
depressive: depressiv
derisive: derisiv
derivative: derivativ
descriptive: descriptiv 
deserve: deserv
designed: designd / designable: designabl 
desirable: desirabl 
despaired: despaird 
despatch: despach 
despicable: despicabl 
despoiled: despoild 
destroyed: destroyd 
destructive: destructiv 
detached: detacht 
detailed: detaild 
detained: detaind 
detective: detectiv 
determinable: determinabl
determine: determin / determined: determind 
detersive: detersiv 
develop, develope: develop / developed: developt 
devisable: devizabl 
devise: devize 
devolve: devolv 
devolved: devolvd 
dewed: dewd
dialed, dialled: diald 
dialist, diallist: dialist
dialing, dialling: dialing 
dialogue: dialog 
diaphanous: diafanous 
diaphoretic: diaforetic
diaphragm: diafragm 
dicephalous: dicefalous 
diffuse, v.: diffuze 
diffusible: diffuzibl 
diffusive: diffusiv d
igestible: digestibl
digraph: digraf
digressive: digressiv
dimmed: dimd
diminished: diminisht 
diminutive: diminutiv 
dimple: dimpl / dimpled: dimpld 
dingle: dingl
dinned: dind
dipped: dipt
directive: directiv
disabuse: disabuze
disagreeable: disagreeab
disappeared: disappeard
disarrayed: disarrayd
disavowed: disavowd
disbelieve: disbeliev
disbelieved: disbelievd
disburden: disburdn
disburdened: disburdend 
disbursed: disburst
discernible: discernibl
discerned: discernd
discipline: disciplin
disclaimed: disclaimd
disclose: discloze
disclosure: disclozure
discolor: disculor
discolored, -oured: disculord
discomfit: discumfit
discomfort: discumfort
discourage; discurage
discourteous: discurteous
discourtesy: discurtesy
discover: discuver
discovered: discuverd
discovery: discuvery
discreditable: discreditabl  
discriminative: discriminativ
discursive: discursiv
discussed: discust
discussive: discussiv
disdained: disdaind
disembarked: disembarkt 
disemboweled: disemboweld 
disentangle: disentangl 
disentangled: disentanglt 
disesteemed: disesteemd
disfavor, disfavour: disfavor / disfavored, disfavoured: disfavord
disguise: disguize
dished: disht
dishearten: dishartn / disheartened: dishartnd 
disheveled: disheveld 
dishonored, dishonoured: dishonord
disinterred: disinterd
disjunctive: disjunctiv 
dismantle: dismantl / dismantled: dismantld 
dismembered: dismemberd 
dismissed: dismist / dismissive: dismissiv 
dispatch: dispach 
dispelled: dispeld
dispensable: dispensab / dispensed: dispenst
dispersive: dispersiv
displayed: displayd
displeasure: displezure
displosive: displosiv
dispossesed: dispossest
disputable: disputabl
disreputable: disreputabl 
dissemble: dissembl / dissembled: dissembld 
dissoluble: dissolubl 
dissolvable: dissolvabl 
dissolve: dissolv / dissolved: dissolvd 
dissuasive: dissuasiv 
dissyllable: dissyllabl
distaff: distaf
distained: distaind
distempered: distemperd
distensible: distensibl
distill, distil: distil / distilled: distild
distinctive: distinctiv
distinguishable: distinguishabl
distinguished: distinguisht
distractive: distractiv
distrained: distraind
distressed: distrest
distributive: distributiv
disturbed: disturbd
disuse, v.: disuze
ditched: dicht
divisible: divisibl
docile: docil
docked: dockt 
doctrine: doctrin 
doff: dof
doffed: doft
doll: dol
dolphin: dolfin
domicile: domcil / domiciled: domicild 
donative: donativ 
double: dubl, dubls / doubled: dubld
doublet: dublet 
doubloon: dubloon 
doubt: dout / doubtful: doutful
dove: duv
dowered: dowerd 
dozen: duzn
drabble: drabl
draff: draf
draft, draught: draft 
dragged: dragd
draggle: dragl / draggled: dragld 
dragooned: dragoond 
draught, draft: draft 
dread: dred / dreadful: dredful 
dreamed: dreamd / dreamt: dremt 
dredged: dredgd 
drenched: drencht 
dressed: drest
dribble: dribl / dribbled: dribld
driblet, dribblet: driblet 
drill: dril
drilled: drild
dripped: driipt
driven: drivn
drizzle: drizl
drizzled: drizld 
dropped: dropt 
drowned: drownd 
drugged: drugd
drummed: drumd d
ducked: duckt
ductile: ductil
duelist, duellist: duelist 
dull: dul, duls / dulled: duld
dumb: dum
durable: durabl 
dutiable: dutiabl 
dwarfed: dwarft
dwell: dwel
dwelled, dwelt: dwelt 
dwindle: dwindl / dwindled: dwindld

eagle: eagl 
eared: eard 
earl: erl
early: erly 
earn: ern / earned: ernd 
earnest: ernest
earnings: ernings 
earth: erth / earthen: erthen / earthling: erthling / earthly: erthly 
eatable: eatabl 
eaten: eatn
ebb: eb / ebbed: ebd 
eclipse: eclips / eclipsed: eclipst
eclogue: eclog
-ed = d: d
-ed = t: t
edged: edgd
effable: effabl 
effective: effectiv 
effectual: effectual 
effrontery: effruntery 
effuse: effuze / effusive: effusiv
egg: eg / egged: egd
elapse: elaps
elapsed: elapst
elective: electiv 
electrifiable: electrifiabl 
eleven: elevn
eligible: eligibl
ellipse: ellips
elusive: elusiv
embarked: embarkt 
embarrassed: embarrast 
embellished: embellisht 
embezzle: embezl / embezzled: embezld 
embossed: embost 
emboweled, embowelled: emboweld 
embroidered: embroiderd 
embroiled: embroild 
emphasis: emfasis / emphasize: emfasize 
emphatic: emfatic 
employed: employd
empurple: empurpl 
emulsive: emulsiv 
enactive: enactiv 
enameled, enamelled: enameld
encamped: encampt 
encircle: encircl / encircled: encircld 
encompass: encumpas / encompasse: encumpast 
encountered: encounterd 
encourage: encurage
encroached: encroacht 
encumbered: encumberd 
endeared: endeard 
endeavor, endeavour: endevor / endeavored, endeavoured: endevord 
endowed: endowd 
endurable: endurabl 
enfeeble: enfeebl / enfeebled: enfebld 
enfeoff: enfef / enfeoffed: enfeft
endered: engezderd 
engine: engin / enginery: enginry 
engrained: engraind 
engulfed: engulft 
enjoyed: enjoyd 
enkindle: enikindl
enough: enuf 
enravished: enravisht 
enriched: enricht 
enroll, enrol: enrol / enrolled: enrold 
ensanguine: ensanguin 
ensealed: enseald 
entailed: entaild 
entangle: entangl / entangled: entangld 
entered: enterd 
entertained: entertaind 
entrance, v.: entranse / entranced: entranst
entrapped: entrapt 
enunciative: enunciativ
enveloped: envelopt 
epaulet, epaulette: epaulet 
ephemera: efemera 
ephemeral: efemeral 
epigraph: epigraf epilogue: epilog
epitaph: epitaf
equable: equabl
equaled, equalled: equald 
equipped: equipt
equitable: equitabl 
erasable: erasabl 
ermine: ermin 
erosive: erosiv 
err: er  / erred: erd
eruptive: eruptiv 
eschewed: eschewd
established.: establisht 
estimable: estimabl 
etch: ech / etched: echt 
euphemism: eufemism
euphemistic: eufemistic 
euphonic: eufonic
euphony: eufony 
euphuism: eufuism 
evasive: evasiv 
evincive: evinciv 
evitable: evitabl 
evolve: evolv / evolved. evolvd 
examine: examin / examined. examind
exceptionable: exceptionabl
excessive: excessiv
excitable: excitabl
exclusive: exclusiv
excretive: excretiv
excursive: excursiv
excusable: excuzabl
excuse, v.: excuze
execrable: execrabl
executive: executiv
exercise: exercize
exhaustible: exhaustibl
exorcise: exorcize
expansible: expansibl
expansive: expansiv
expelled: expeld
expensive: expensiv
expiable: expiabl
explainable: explainabl / explained: explaind
expletive: expletiv
explicative: explicativ
explosive: explosiv
expressed: exprest / expressive: expressiv
expugnable: expugnabl  
expulsive: expulsiv
exquisite: exquisit
extensible: extensibl
extensive: extensiv
extinguished: extinguisht
extolled. extold
extractive: extractiv
extricable: extricabl
eye: ey

factitive: factitiv
fagged: fagd
failed: faild 
fallible: fallibl
faltered: falterd 
famine: famin
famished: famisht 
farewell: farewel
farmed: farmd 
fascicle: fascicl
fashioned: fashiond / fashionable: fashionabl 
fastened: fastend 
fathered: fatherd
fathomed: fathomd / fathomable: fathomabl
fattened: fatend
favor, favour: favor
favored: favord
favorite: favorit
fawned: fawnd
feared: feard 
feasible: feasibl
feather: fether / feathered: fetherd / feathery: fethery
febrile: febril
federative: federativ
feeble: feebl
feign: fein / feigned: feind
feminine: feminin
fence: fense
fermentative: fermentativ
fertile: fertil
festive: festiv
fetch: fech /  fetched: fetchd
fevered: feverd
fiber, fibre: fiber / fibered: fiberd
fibrine: fibrin
fickle: fickl
fiddle: fidl / fiddled: fidld
fidgetting: fidgeting
fierce: fierse
filched: filcht
fill: fill / filled: fild
filliped: fillipt 
filtered: filterd 
fingered: fingerd 
finished: finisht 
fished: fisht 
fissile: fissil
fixed: fixt
fiz: fizz / fizzed: fizd 
flagged: flagd 
flapped: flapt 
flashed: flasht 
flattened: flattend
flattered: flatterd 
flavor, flavour: flavor / flavored, flavoured: flavord
flawed: flawd 
fledged: fledgd 
fleered: fleerd 
fleshed: flesht 
flexible: flexibl
flexile: flexil
flied inched incht
flogged: flogd
floored: floord
floundered: flounderd 
flourish: flurish
flourished: flurisht 
flushed: flusht
flustered: flusterd 
fluttered: flutterd
fluxed: fluxt 
fluxible: fluxibl
foaled: foald
foamed: foamed
fobbed: fobd 
focused: focust foible: foibl
foiled: foild 
followed:: followd 
fondle: fondl
fondled: fondld 
fooled: foold
forbade: forbad / forbidden: forbidn 
forcible: forcibl
foregone : foregon 
forehead: forhed
foreign: foren
foreigner: forener
forewarned: forewarnd
forgive: forgiv
forgiveness: forgivness
forgone : forgon
formed: formd
formative: formativ
formidable: formidabl
fosse, foss: foss
fostered:: fosterd
fouled: fould
foundered: founderd
foxed: foxt
fragile: fragil
freckle: freckl
freckled: freckld
freeze: freez 
freshened: freshend 
fribble: fribbl 
friend: frend
frieze: friez
frightened: frightend 
frill: fril
frilled: frild 
frisked: friskt
frittered: fritterd 
frizz: friz / frizzed: frizd 
frizzle: frizl / frizzled:: frizld
frolicked: frolickt / frolicsome: frolicsum
front: frunt
frowned: frownd 
fugitive: fugitiv 
fulfill,fulfil: fulfil / fulfilled: fulfild 
full: ful / fulled: fuld
fulsome: fulsum
fumble: fumbl
fumbled: fumbld
furbished: furbisht
furled: furltd
furlough: furlo / furloughed: furloed
furnished: furnisht
furthered: furtherd 
furtive: furtiv
furze: furz 
fuse: fuze 
fusible: fuzibl 
fusion: fuzion
fussed: fust 
futile: futil
fuzz: fuz

gabbed: gabd 
gabble: gabl / gabbled: gabbld 
gaff: gaf
gaffle: gafl 
gagged: gagd 
gained: gaind 
galled: galld 
gamble: gambl / gambled: gambld 
gamesome: gamesum 
garble: garbl / garbled: garbld 
gardened: gardend 
gargle: gargl / gargled: gaglld 
garnered: garnerd
gashed: gashht 
gasped: gaspt
gauze: gauz
gazelle, gazel: gazel 
gazette: gazet
gelatine, gelatin: gelatin
gendered: genderd 
genitive: genitiv 
gentle: gentl 
gentleman: gentlman 
genuine: genuin 
geographer: geografer / geographic: geografic /geography: geografy 
ghastliness: gastliness / ghastly: gastly
ghost: gost 
giggle: gigl
gill: gil
girdle: girdl / girdled: girdld 
give: giv
given: givn 
gladsome: gladsum 
gleamed: gleamd 
gleaned: gleand glimpse: glimps
glimpsed: glimpst
glistered: glisterd
glittered: glitterd
gloomed: gloomd
glycerine, glycerin: glycerin
glyph: glyf
gnarled: gnarld 
gnawed: gnawd 
gobble: gobl / gobbled: gobld 
godhead: godhed 
goggle: gogl / goggled: gogld
goiter, goitre: goiter 
gone: gon
good-by, good-bye: good-by
gotten: gotn
govern: guvern / governed:guvernd
governess: guverness / government: guvernment 
governor: guvernor 
grabbed: grabd
graff: graf
grained: graind
granite: granit
grasped: graspt
grease, v:: greaz, grease / greased: greazd, greast 
griddle: gridl
grieve: griev grieved:: grievd
grill: gril / grilled: grild 
gripped: gript 
grizzle: grizl / grizzled: grizld 
groomed: groomd
groove: groov / grooved: groovd 
grouped: groupt 
groveled: groveld 
growled: growld 
grudged: grudgd 
grumble: grumbl 
grumbled: grumbld 
guarantee: garantee / guaranty: garanty
guard: gard / guardian: gardian 
guess: gess / guessed: gest / guest: gest
guild: gild
guilt: gilt
guilty: gilty
guise: guize
gulfed: gulft 
gulped: gulpt 
gurgle: gurgl / gurgled: gurgld
gushed: gust
guzzle: guzl / guzzled: guzld

habitable: habitabl 
hacked: hackt 
hackle: hackl / hackled: hackld 
haggle: hagl / haggled: hagld 
hailed: haild 
hallowed: hallowd 
haltered: halterd 
halve: halv,halvs / halved: halvd
hampered: hamperd
handcuff: handcuf / handcuffed: handcuft
handsome: handsum
hanged: hangd 
happed: hapt
happened: happend 
harangue: harang / harangued: harangd 
harassed: harast 
harbor, harbour: harbor / harbored, harboured: harbord
harked: harkt 
harmed: harmd 
harnessed: harnest 
harped: harpt 
harrowed: harrowd 
hashed: hasht
hatch: hach
hatched: hacht / hatchment: hachment 
haughty: hauty 
hauled: hauld
have: hav
havock, havoc: havoc / havocked: havockt 
hawked: hawkt
head: hed
headache: hedake 
headland: hedland 
headlong: hedlong
healed: heald 
health: helth / healthy: helthy
heaped: heapt 
heard: herd 
hearken: harken / hearkened: harkend 
hearse: herse 
hearsed: herst 
heart: hart
hearth: harth
hearty: harty heather: 
hether heave: heav
heaved: heavd 
heaven: heven 
heaves: heavs
heavy: hevy
hedged: hedgd 
heeled: heeld
heifer: hefer 
heightened: heightend 
hell: hel
helped: helpt
helve: helv
hence: hense 
hermaphrodite: hermafrodite
hiccough, hiccup: hiccof, hiccup / hiccoughed, hiccupped: hiccoft, hiccupt
hidden: hidn
hill: hil
hilled: hild 
hindered: hinderd 
hipped: hipt 
hissed: hist
hitch: hich / hitched: hicht
hobble: hobl
homestead: homested
honey: huney / honeyed: huneyd
honied: hunied
honor, honour: honor / honored, honoured: honord / honorable, honourable: honorabl
hoodwinked: hoodwinkt
hoofed: hooft 
hooked: hookt
hooped: hoopt / hooping-cough; hooping-cof
hopped: hopt 
horned: hornd
horography: horografy 
horrible: horribl
horsed: horst hortative: hortativ
hospitable: hospitabl 
hough, hock: hock 
house, v:: houz / housed: houzd / housing: houzing 
huff: huf / huffed: huft
hugged: hugd
humble: humbl 
humbled:: humbld 
humor, humour: humor / humored, humoured: humord
humped: humnpt 
husked: huskt
hustle: hustl / hustled: hustld
hutch: huch / hutched: hucht 
hydrography: hydrografy 
hydrophobia: hydrofobia 
hyphen: hyfen / hyphened: hyfend 
hypocrite: hypocrit

icicle: icicl
ill: il
illative: illativ
illness: ilness
illusive: illusiv 
illustrative: illustrativ 
imaginable: imaginabl / imaginative: imaginativ / imagine: imagin / imagined: imagind 
imbecile: imbecil 
imbittered: imbitterd 
imbrowned: inbrownd 
imitative: imitativ 
immeasurable: immezurab
impaired: impaird 
impassive: impassiv 
impeached: impeacht
impelled: impeld
imperative: imperativ
imperilled: imperild
implacable: implacabl
impossible: impossibl
impoverished: impoverisht
impressed: imprest / impressive: impressiv
impulsive: impulsiv
inaccessible: inaccessibl  
inactive: inactiv
incensed: incenst 
incentive: incentiv 
inceptive: inceptiv
inclose: incloze inclusive: inclusiv increased: increast incurred: incurd indexed: indext indicative: indicativ 
indorsed: indorst 
inferred: inferd 
infinite: infinit
infixed: infixt 
inflective: inflectiv
inflexive: inflexiv
informed: informd 
infuse: infuze 
inked: inkt
inn: in inned: ind
inquisitive: inquisitiv 
installed: installd 
instead: insted 
instinctive : instinctiv
instructive: instructiv
intelligible: intelligibl
interleave: interleav / interleaved: interleavd 
interlinked: interlinkt 
intermeddle: intermedl 
interrogative: interrogativ 
intespersed: interspersed 
intestine: intestin 
introduction: introduction 
intrusive: intrusiv 
inurned: inurnd 
invective: invectiv 
inventive: inventiv 
involve: involv / involved: involvd 
inweave: inweav 
inwrapped: inwrapt 
iodine: iodin
irksome: irksum 
irritative: irritativ
island: iland
isle: ile
islet: ilet
itch: ich
itched: icht
iterative: iterativ

jabbered: jabberd
jail, gaol: jail / jailed: jaild
jammed: jamd
jarred: jard
jasmine: jasmin / jessamine: jessamin
jealous: jelous / jealousy: jelousy 
jeered: jeerd 
jeopard: jepard / jeopardy: jepardy 
jerked: jerkt
jibbed: jibd
joggle: jogl / joggled: jogld
joined: joind
jostle: jostl / jostled: jostld 
journal: jurnal / journalism: jurnalism / journalist: jurnalist 
journey: jurney / journeyed: journeyd 
joust, just: just 
judicative: judicativ
juggle: jugl / juggled: jugld 
jumble: jumbl 
jumbled: jumbld 
jungle: jungl 
justifiable: justifiabl 
juvenile: juvenil

keelhauled: keelhauld 
kettle: ketl
key, quay: key
kidnapped: kidnapt 
kill: kil / killed. kild
kindle: kindl / kindled. kindld 
kissed. kist 
kitchen: kichen 
knell: knel 
knuckle: knuckl / knuckled: knuckld

labor,labour: labor / labored, laboured: labord 
lacked: lackt
lamb: lam
lanched: lancht
languished: languisht 
lapse: laps / lapsed: lapst
lashed: lasht
latch: lach / latched: lacht 
lathered: latherd 
laudable: laudabl 
laugh: laf / laughed: laft / laughable: lafabl / laughter: lafter 
launched: launcht 
laxative: laxativ 
lead (metal): led 
lead (pret.) : led 
leaden: leden 
league: leag / leagued: leagd 
leaked: leakt
leaned: leand, lent
leaped, leapt: leapt, lept 
learn: lern
learned: lern-ed, lernd / learning: lerning / learnt: lernt
leased: least
leather: lether / leathern: lethern 
leave: leav
leaven: leven / leavened: levend 
leered: leerd 
legible: legibl 
legislative: legislativ 
lenitive: lenitiv
leopard: lepard
lessened: lessend
leveled, levelled: leveld / leveling, levelling: leveling
lexicographer: lexicografer / lexicography: lexicografy 
liable: liabl
libeled, libled: libeld 
libertine: libertin 
licensed: licenst 
lighten: lightn / lightened: lightnd 
limb: lim
lipped: lipt
lisped: lispt
limped: limpt
listened: listend
lithograph: lithograf / lithogroaphed: lithograft / lithographer: iithografer / lithography: lithografy 
little: litl
live: liv / lived: livd / livelong: livlong 
loathsome: loathsum 
locked: lockt 
loitered: loiterd 
looked: lookt 
loomed: loomd 
looped: loopt
loosed: loost / loosened: loosend
lopped: lopt 
lovable: luvabl 
love: luv / loved: luvd 
lovely: luvly 
lucrative: lucrativ 
luff: luf / luffed: luft / luffed: luft
lull: lul / lulled: luld
lumped: lumpt 
lustre, luster: luster
lymph: lymf / lymphatic: lymfatic 
lynched: lyncht

mailed: maild
maimed: maimd 
maintained: maintaind 
maize: maiz
malled: malld 
malleable: malleabl 
manacle: manacl 
maneuver, manoeuvre: maneuver / maneuvered, manoeuvred: maneuverd
marched: marcht
marked: markt
marveled, marvelled: marveld
marvelous, marvellous: marvelous
masculine: masculin 
masked: maskt 
massive: massiv
nastered: masterd 
match: mach
matched: macht 
materialise, materialize: materialize
meadow: medow
meant: ment
measles: measls
measurable: mezurabl / measure: mezure / measured: mezurd
meddle: medl
meddled: medld 
meddlesome: medlsum 
medicine: medicin 
meditative: meditativ 
melancholy: melancoly 
memorable: memorabl 
memorialise, memorialize: memorialize
mephitic: mefitic / mephitis: mefitis 
mercantile: mercantil 
merchandise: merchandize
merchantable: merchantabl
merged: mergd 
meshed: mesht 
messed: mest
metamorphose: metamorfose / metamorphosis: metamorfosis
metaphysics: metafyics
metre, meter: meter
mettle: metl
mettled: metld 
mettlesome: metlsum 
mewled: mewld 
middle: midl / middling: midling 
mildewed: mildewd 
mill: mil / milled: mild 
mimicked: mimickt 
miracle: miracl 
misbecome: misbecum 
miserable: miserabl misgive: misgiv 
missile: missil 
missive: missiv 
mistletoe: mistltoe 
misuse, v:: misuze mitre, miter: miter 
mocked: mockt 
money: muney 
monitive: monitiv 
monk: munk
monkey: munkey 
monkish: munkish
monograph: monograf 
monologue: monolog
monosyllable: monosyllabl 
moored: moord
mossed: most
motive: motiv
mouse, v:: mouz / mouser: mouzer 
movable: movabl 
mowed: mowd 
muddle: mudl 
muff: muf / muffed: muft 
muffle: mufl / muffled: mufld 
mulched: mulcht 
mumble: mumbl / mumbled: mumbld 
munched: muncht 
murdered: murderd 
murmured: murmurd 
muscle: muscl 
mutable: mutabl 
muzzle: muzl / muzzled: muzld 
myrtle: myrtl

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