Warning: Simplified and/or fonetic spelling ahed!
The following ar outtakes from two writs. The spelling in the writs is as it was written. One must keep in mind that the list is only a "partial" reform. The list at the end was never ment to be the last list as other spellings had yet to be workt out so that most folks wuud hold with them.
Indeed, I don’t hold with all the foresets below, huru the not-twaining (not doubling) of many consonants to show a short vowel. The untwaining of un-historical and unfonetic consonants such as in afford (aford) and allay (alay) ar good … hwich (which), hwile (while) in the writ, ar not on the list! However, I deem it better to twain consonants hwer (where) the twu stafs are said or it makes the foregoing vowel short.
I believ they wrongly drop the twain-p from apple (ap-pel) hwer both ar said and keep the twain-p in appeal (a-peal) on the list. The twu p's in appeal arn’t said and having twu p's is misleading (tho it is apeal in the writ, it’s not on the list). The first p in appel also helps show that the stress is on the first syllabel. Apple shuud be written as appel not apl. Apl is befuddling as it cuud be either appel or appeal. Thus, appel and apeal ar the better ways to write theze words. However, as the writ says: Less prejudice is excited by omissions than alterations of letters. Thus it is easier to drop the e and write littl than it is to get folks to write littel. In that befall, I would write appl rather than apl.
Oddly the list isn't steddy (consistent) in the way it handels sum words. It has foregon but (wrongly I think) drops the first e from forehead to forhed. The silent e on the forefast fore- does hav meaning. For-, fer- is an intensifier … often negativ; hweras fore- means before.
The u is droppt to make garantee, gard, gess, gest, gild, and gilty, but oddly left in guize. On the list, stiff loses an f to stif, but stiffend keeps it. The s in measure becomes z, meszure everyhwer but in admesure. Theze unsteddinesses crop up in other words as well.
Overall, I don’t like the (w)holesale dropping of vowels like in givn (given) and I'd rather write littel, middel, asf rather than littl, middl … or worse, litl, midl as they do. Oddly, it is left in soveren rather than the weend sovrn. Threten keeps the e hwile thretnd drops it. So one can see a few mor of the unsteddinesses of the list. Given that the list is sum 3500 words, one shuudn’t be amaz'd that ther ar a few such mistakes.
Sum words seem to hav shifted the way to say them sinse this list came out … mayhap pronunciation chasing spelling. Words like agile, bissextile, camomile, fissile, hostile, juvenile, mobile, nubile, respite, and many mor may be said with a short i or a long ī. Forbade is wuntedly said with a long ā. Iodine, oxide and palatine ar said with a ī. All of these are written on the list as if the i is short.
Sadly, the list keeps up the raveling of the staf c. I strongly gainsay writing scimitar as cimitar and scissors as cissors … they shuud be simitar and sissors. Hwen dropping the h from sch for sk, it shuud be written sk. Thus I gainsay scolar, scolastic, scool, scooner … these shuud be skolar, skolastic, skool, and skooner. … Liken sked.
Thankfully, they did not fall into the fremless trap of trying to sunder the twu slightly otherly th sounds.
Ther ar many spelling oddnesses like the qu = qw or k; g = j, the fremless o in -ous, and others that need to be done over that, as far as I know, they never got to.
Many of the following spellings, I ween, not only do not help the unknowing to know how say the words, but may hinder them even mor (see apl abuv) and thus defeats the reason behind spelling reform. A spelling like apl is sheer pedantry and one needs to know how to say the word before ever reading it … otherwize one might say apul, apil … and may never gess the flat a (æ) at the beginning.
Ther ar many, many guud spellings in the following writs; however, I think many … like apl or fobd… put too much emfasis on shortness and trying to pijjenhole a spelling rather than keeping the end-reader in mynd.
Sum of the spellings, like arabesq / arabesk, aford, asf ar put forth in the body of the erlier writ but ar not on the later list.
The writs ar sumhwat edited for length otherwize they ar as written. The list however is given in full with any errors and oddnesses such as introduction: introduction, squawl: squawl. I don't know why these ar ther … maybe they ment to write squalled: squald. Nonetheless, I left them as is. The only editing of the list is to groop sum like words together to make the length a littel shorter.
So, without further ado:
The New Spellings of the Philological Society of London
F. A. March
Transactions of the American Philological Association (1869-1896), Vol. 12 (1881), pp. 52-68
Next follow "Details". They ar givn here in the language of the pamflet. Comments ar added in brackets. The lists of ilustrations ar not givn in full.
… There is no necessity that the corected words should be numerous; the great point is that they should be free from objection. But in fact sum of the corections ar open to ernest objection.
… The obstacls to reform ar the difficulty and inconvenience of change; but large changes hav been made and ar now going on. Much prejudice, however, is excited by unfamiliar forms of words, and this is a reazon for avoiding changes which ocur very often, such as ov for of, z for s in inflections, and the like. Less prejudice is excited by omissions than alterations of letters.
… Etymology and history. Etymological spelling, in its conventional sense, consists simply in retaining the fonetic spellings of an erlier period after they hav becum unfonetic.
Such a spelling destroys the materials on which etymological investigations ar based — namely, a continuous series of fonetic spellings.
Altho theze views ar now accepted by all filologists, an apeal to traditional spellings, in introducing a partial reform, has two uses:
a. it afords a basis of agreement which may be otherwize wanting, as in the expulsion of the s of island; and
b. afords a convenient principl of limitation. It also servs as a test of the sincerity of thoze who opoze reform solely on "etymological" grounds.
Sum "etymological" spellings ar incorect, as s in island; sum corect, as k in knee: classes of spellings ar often neutral. Silent e, for exampl, is neutral, since it is a mere chance whether it corresponds to an older vowel or not; so final silent b. It is very difficult, therefore, to giv rules on etymological grounds which wil not hav many exceptions
e. Silent e has no etymological value, and should be omitted wherever foneticaly useless, that is, wherever it does not lengthen a preceding vowel, and in sum other cases noticed below.
In the following words it is foneticaly misleading, being added to a short vowel followd by a singl consonant, and should therefor be dropt:
Above, abuv; are, ar; … ; come, cum; comes, cums; dove, duv; give, giv; given, givn; gone, gon; have, hav; live, liv; lived, livd; love, luv; shove, shuv; some, sum; somewhat, sumwhat; vineyard, vinyard; welcome, welcum; were, wer.
In the following cases it is foneticaly useless.
It should be dropt after v and z preceded by a writn long vowel or a consonant, as in:
Aggrieve, agreev [agriev]; aggrieves, agreevs [agrievs]; aggrieved, agreevd [agrievd]; believe, beleev [believ]; calve, calv; carve, carv; cleave, cleav; curve, curv; involve, involv; leave, leav; move…, moov; nerve, nerv; perceive, perceiv; preserve, prezerv; prove …, proov; receive, receiv.
Frieze, freez [friez]; furze, furz; wheeze, wheez; adze, adz.
e should be dropt after s = z preceded by a consonant or writn long vowel, whether z is writn insted of the s or not:
Appease, apeaz; applause, aplauz; cheese, cheez; clause, clauz;
Also in -dge,as in: Edge, edg; edged, edgd; knowledge, knowledg. Compare Edgware, acknowledgment.
And in: Apse, aps; axe, ax; collapse, colaps; collapsed, colapst; glimpse, glimps; lapse, laps.
For -re write -er:
Centre, center; centres, centers; centred, centerd; lustre, luster; metre, meter; mitre, miter; nitre, niter; saltpetre, saltpeter; sceptre, scepter; sepulchre, sepulcher; spectre, specter; theatre, theater.
The change has alredy been made in (gas)meter, barometer, tiger, etc. [and in the other words by Webster and others].
The e of -le can be dropt
(a) where the l is preceded by two consonants, as in: Apostle, apostl; assemble, asembl; assembles, asembls; assembled, asembld; pebble, pebl; … ; single, singl;
(b) where l is preceded by a singl consonant with a short vowel before it: Couple, cupl; double, dubl;
(c) where a writn long vowel precedes, as in: Beadle, beadl; foible, foibl;
(d) in the terminations -able, -ible, and -icle, as in: Agreeable, agreeabl; article, articl; articles, articls; possible, possibl; probable, probabl; sensible, sensibl.
e can be dropt in -ine, -ise, -ite, -ive, -some, wherever the i or o is short, as in: Discipline, disciplin; doctrines, doctrins; examined, examind; feminine, feminin; practise, practis; promise, promis; treatise, treatis; premise, premis; definite, definit; favourite, favorit; infinite, infinit; opposite, opposit; motive, motiv; motives, motivs; repulsive, repulsiv; talkative, talkativ; handsome, handsum; quarrelsome, quarrelsum; tiresome, tiresum; wholesome, holesum.
Where the e modifies the preceding vowel (not necessarily by lengthening) in any way, it cannot be omitted: this is specialy the case after u, as in volume, soluble, nature, measure. The e coud be omitted after u in sum words, such as figure and injure, …
e before a consonant is often dropt in -es and -ed …, of which many exampls ar givn abuv.
ea has the etymological value of simpl e, which preceded it in Midl English, and the a can be omitted in: Bread, bred; breadth, bredth; breakfast, brekfast; breast, brest; breath, breth; …; cleanse, clenz; dead, ded; deaf, def; dearth, derth; death, deth; dread, dred; dreamed[?], dremt; earl, erl; early, erly; earn, ern; earnest, ernest; earth, erth; endeavour, endevor; feather, fether; head, hed; health, helth; heard, herd; hearse, herse; heaven, heven; heavy, hevy; jealous, jelous; lead, sb., led; leaned[?], lent; learn, lern; leaped, lept; leather, lether; leaven, leven; meadow, medow; meant, ment; measure, mezure; pearl, perl; peasant, pezant; pheasant, fezant; pleasant, plezant; pleasure, plezure; read, prt., red; ready, redy; realm, relm; rehearse, reherse; search, serch; spread, spred; stead, sted; steady, stedy; stealth, stelth; sweat, swet; thread, thred; threat, thret; threaten, threten; treachery, trechery; tread, tred; treadle, tredl; treasure, trezure; wealth, welth; weapon, wepon; weather, wether; yearn, yern; zealous, zelous.
Where ea has the sound of a, the analogy of hark justifies us in omitting the e, thereby restoring frequent Tudor spellings: Hearken, harken; heart, hart; hearth, harth.
eau. The older spelling of beauty should be restord: Beauty, beuty.
ei. The e of height is useless: Height …, hiht.
eo. Where eo has the sound of e, the older spellings should be restord: jeopardy, jepardy; leopard, lepard;…
In yeoman the e is useless.
i. The unhistorical i of parliament should be dropt: Parliament, parlament. The commonest Midl English spelling is parlement.
o. The Tudor oo should be restord in: Behove, behoov; lose, looz; move, moov; prove,
proov. [It is better not to urge oo for an u-sound; pruve is a better spell-
ing than proov, and we need not yet despair of it.]
In the following the Old English and Old French u should be restord: Above (abuv), affront (afrunt), attorney (aturney), borough (buroh) [?], colour (culor) [?], come, comfit,comfrey, comfort (cumfort), companion (cumpanion), company, compass, conjuror (cunjuror), constable, covenant, cover, covet, covey, discomfit, dove, dozen, front, govern, honey,love, money, mongrel, monk, monkey, plover, pommel, shove, shovel, some, son, sponge, stomach, thorough (thuroh) [?], ton, tongue (tung), won, wonder, worm, worry, worse, worship, worst, worth.
In women (O.E. wifmenn) original i should be restord.
ou. The Old English and Old French u should be restord in: Adjourn (ajurn), bourgeon (burgeon), country, couple (cupl), couplet, courage, cousin, double, enough (enuf), flourish, journal, journey, …, nourish, rough (ruf), scourge, southerly, southern, through (thru), touch, touching, tough (tuf), trouble (trubl).
The ou in enough and tough has no historical value, and may therefor be made fonetic; …
In -ough the u is useless (O.E. bohte, dohte, etc.): Bought, boht; brought, broht; fought, foht; ought, oht; sought, soht; though, tho; thought, thoht; wrought, wroht.
In -our the dropping of the u should be carried out everywhere [as in Webster and Worcester].
u after g in nativ English words is unetymological, and is not more required in guess, etc., than in get, gill, girdle, give, etc. The u in guarantee and guard is no more required than in regard and gage.
Guarantee, garantee; guard, gard; guardian, gardian; guess, gess; guest, gest; guild, gild; guilt, gilt.
Silent u should be dropt after q, conquer being thus distinguisht from conquest:
Silent ue should be dropt after q wherever the u is silent and the e not required for lengthening: Arabesque, arabesq; arabesques, arabesqs; burlesque; burlesqued, burlesqt; casque; cheque, cheq [check]; cinque, cinq; grotesque, grotesq; mosque, mosq.
ue is not more required in the English cinque that in the French cinq.
[… Better put in k (arabesk) …]
ue is historicaly useless (due to the influence of Modern French spelling) in the following words after g and should be dropt: Apologue (apolog), catalogue, colleague, decalogue, demagogue, dialogue, eclogue, epilogue, harangue (harang), league, monologue, mystagogue, pedagogue, prologue, synagogue, tongue (tung).
There ar many words beginning with unaccented prefixes in which the analogy of Latin words like accuse, commit, immure, has led to an unhistorical dubling. Such words as account, allow, arrive, attack, and many others, wer taken straiht from Old French, where they had singl consonants, the dubling, being a later etymological fancy. In such words as affront and affair, from a front, a faire, it is based on sheer ignorance; as also in the nativ English words, accursed, afford, affright, from Old English acursod, aforðian, afyrht. In short, this dubling has litl or no etymological value, … Abbreviate, abreviate; accuse, acuze; …; address, adress; adjust, ajust; affair, afair; arrange, assist, attack, command, commit, connect, etc.
Acquit, adjust, etc., ar, of course, equivalent to accwit, addzhust.
The dubl consonants must be kept in accented syllabls, as in aggravate.
Consonants may, of course, be dubld or kept dubl where necessary or convenient, as in detter for debtor, added, whizzing.
b is etymologicaly wrong in debt, doubt, subtle, which cum from the Old French dete, doute, sutil, theze being also the older English spellings. The b in -mb is etymologicaly useless, having often been added without reazon, as in limb = Old English lim: Bomb, bom; crumb, crum; debt, det; debtor, detter; doubt; dumb; lamb; limb, lim; numb; plumb, plumber, plummer; redoubt, redout; subtle, sutl; succumb, sucum; thumb, thum.
Detter is a frequent Tudor spelling. …
c. Initial c in cinder, from Old English sinder, is due to a mistaken etymology from French cendre.
Medial c is writn unetymologicaly for s in a large number of words, …: Cinder, sinder; expence, expense; fierce, feerse [fierse]; hence, hense; once, onse; pence, pense; scarce, scarse; since, sinse; source, sourse; thence, thense; tierce, teerse [tierse]; whence, whense.
ch. For ache the older ake should be restord. anchor was spelt anker in erlier English: it has been refashiond after the Latin anchora, itself a corupt spelling of Greek agkara. The h in chamomile, cholet; cholera (cf. colic), melancholy, school, stomach, is a late insertion paralel to that of b in debt: in Midl English theze words wer writn camomille, coler(ik), melancolie, scole, stomak. …
d. The dropping of the e of -ed involvs the change of d into t after a voiceless consonant, together with the simplification of dubl consonants. Barred, bard; crossed, crost; erred, erd; looked, lookt; pulled, puld; rained, raind; restored …, restord; slipped, slipt; tugged, tugd; whizzed, whizd.
g is a late insertion in feign (cf. feint), foreign, sovereign (on the analogy of reign, with which it is totaly unconected). Feign, fein; foreign, forein [foren]; sovereign, soverein [soveren].
It has been propozed to restore Milton’s sovran, … The best spelling is soveren, foren.]
gh. The h is etymologicaly useless in aghast, burgh, ghost (O.E. gast). gh in night, etc., is a late and clumzy substitute for Old English h (niht, dohtor, etc.). The g should be omitted wherever gh is silent. Where gh = f, it may either be provizionaly retaind or else changed … as has alredy been done in draft = draught, and, at an erlier period, in dwarf from Old English dweorhz.
Aghast, agast; daughter, dauhter [dauter]; delight, delite; eight, eiht [eit]; ghost, gost; haughty, hauty; …; height, hiht; night, niht …; plough, plouh [plow]; sprightly, spritely; straight, straiht [strait]; thorough, thuroh [thuro]; though, tho; through, thru; weight, weiht [weit]. …
1 dropt in could (Old E. cuðe), which ows it to the false analogy of would and should, where it is historical:
p in receipt is a modern insertion, which has not been made in the paralel conceit, deceit,etc.
ph for v in nephew is unmeaning, … .
s is wrongly inserted in aisle (O.F. ele), demesne, island (O.E. igland), isle.
Aisle, aile; demesne, demene; island, iland; isle, ile … .
The retention of s = z is the cheef obstacl to the regulation of silent e (p. 59). As the change of inflectional s in such words as dens, gives, would involv a disproportionately large number of alterations, it is advizabl to leav it unchanged at first, as also in very common words, such as as, is, was.
The change is especialy recomended, 1, in distinctiv words, such as use (verb); and 2, in the termination -ise:
Abuse vb., abuze; advertise, advertize; choose, chooz; chosen, chozen; close vb., cloze; diffuse vb., difuze; dissolve, dizolv; excuse vb., excuze; house vb., houz; mouse vb., mouz; pleasure, plezure; raise, raiz; refuse vb., refuze; rise, rize.
z is alredy in use in freeze, frozen (tho not in choose, chosen), in size, furze, civilize, etc. Besides its purely fonetic use in nativ English words, it is always writn both foneticaly and etymologicaly in Greek words. Hense sum object to the spelling analyze (Gk. analysis) as unetymological; but the question is simply whether we ar to carry out the English fonetic or the Greek etymological use of z: if the latter, we must write freese, sise, etc.; if the former, analyze.
sc. The c is eroneously inserted in scent (Fr. sentir) and scythe (O.E. siðe): Scent, sent; sceptic, skeptic …; scythe, sithe.
w is unetymological in whole (O.E. hal; cf. heal). Whole, hole.
The following changes wer advocated by so large a majority that it was thoht advizabl to include them among the imediate reforms, … .
gh. Substitute f for gh where so pronounced, as has alredy been done in draft … and dwarf: Chough, chuf; cough, cof; draught, draft; enough, enuf; laugh, laf; laughter, lafter; rough, ruf; slough, sluf; tough, tuf; trough, trof.
The vowels in theze words hav but litl historical value. The u in most of them, such as cough, laugh, trough, is not original; cf. O. E. cohhettan, hlihhan, trog; enough, tough = O.E. genoh, toh, rough = ruh.
ph. If f wer substituted for ph everywhere, as in Italian, Spanish, and the Scandinavian languages, a letter would be saved, and etymology would not be apreciably obscured: Blaspheme, blasfeme; camphor, camfor; phantasm, fantasm; philosophy, filosofy; photograph, fotograpf; sphere, sfere.
With phantasm cf. fancy.
List of Amended Spellings
RECOMMENDED BY THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON AND THE AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
Transactions of the American Philological Association (1869-1896), Vol: 17 (1886), pp: 127-149
1. e. — Drop silent e when fonetically useless, writing -er for -re, as in live, single, eaten, rained, theatre, etc.
2. ea. — Drop a from ea having the sound of e, as in feather, leather, etc.
3. o. — For o having the sound of u in but write u in above (abuv), tongue (tung), and the like.
4. ou. — Drop o from ou having the sound of u in but in trouble, rough (ruf), and the like; for -our unaccented write -or, as in honour.
5. u, ue. — Drop silent u after g before a, and in nativ English words, and drop final ue: guard, guess, catalogue, league, etc.
6. Dubl consonants may be simplified when fonetically useless: bailiff, (not hall, etc.), battle (batl), written (writn), traveller, etc.
7. d. — Change d and ed final to t when so pronounced, as in looked (lookt), etc., unless the e affects the preceding sound, as in chafed, etc.
8. gh, ph. — Change gh and ph to f when so sounded: enough (enuf), laughter (lafter), etc.; phonetic (fonetic), etc.
9. s. — Change s to z when so sounded, especially in distinctiv words and in -ise: abuse, verb (abuze), advertise (advertize), etc.
10. t. — Drop t in tch: catch, pitch, etc.
The following is a synopsis of all the changes:
-ed: d, t.
: ze, z.
-able, unaccented: -abl
abuse, v: abuze
accursed: accurs-ed, accurst
ache, ake: ake
actionable: actionabl active: activ
advertise, -ize: advertize
advertisement: advertizement, advertizment
advise: advize [verb]
advisement: advizement advisory: advizory
adze, adz: adz
afflictive: afflictiv affront: affrunt
afront, adv: afrunt
aggrieve: aggriev / aggrieved: aggrievd
alumine, alumin: alumin
amphitheater, -tre: amfitheater
analyze, analyse: analyze
anapest, anapaest: anapest
anchor: anker / anchored: ankerd
aquiline: aquilin, -ine
arbor, arbour: arbor
armor,armour: armor / armored, armoured: armord
arose: aroze arraigned:' arraignd
artisan, artizan: artizan
awsome, awesome: awsum
ax, axe: ax
ay, aye: ay
backslidden : backslidn
bad, bade, pret:: bad
barreled, -elled: barreld
barreling, -elling: barreling
bayoneted, -etted: bayoneted
beadle: beadl [bedel]
bedabble: bedabl / bedabbled: bedabld
bedeviled, -illed: bedevild
bedraggle: bedragl / bedraggled: bedragld
belabor,belabour: belabor / belabored,belaboured: belabord
beldam, beldame: beldam
beleaguer: beleager / beleaguered: beleagerd
believe: believ / believed: believd
belittle: belitl / belittled: belitld
beloved: beluv-ed, beluvd
benumb: benum / benumbed: benumd
bereave: bereav / bereaved: bereavd
berhyme, berime: berime
bespangle: bespangl / bespangled: bespangld
besprinkle: besprinkl / besprinkled: besprinkld
bestraddle: bestradl / bestraddled: bestradild
beveled,bevelled: beveld / beveling, bevelling: beveling
bewitch: bewich / bewitched: bewicht
biased, biassed: biast
bicolored, bicoloured: biculord
binocle: binocl biographer: biografer
bister, bistre: bister
blameworthy: blame- wurthy
blessed, blest : bless-ed, blest:
blocked: blockt blockhead: blockhed
blond, blonde: blond
bobbed: bobd bobtailed:
bodygard boggle: bogl
bombazine, -sine: bombazine
booze, boose: booz
boozy, boosy: boozy
bots, botts: bots
brangle: brangl / brangled: brangld
breeze (wind): breez
brighten: brightn / brightened: brightnd
brindle: brindl / brindled: brindld
bromine, bromin: bromin
browse, browze, v:: browz / browse, n: browse
buckle: buckl / buckled: buckld
build, bild: bild
bungle: bungl bungled: bungld
bur, burr: bur
burden: burdn / burdened: burdnd
burg, burgh: burg
burger, burgher: burger
burthen: burthn / burthened:burthnd
but, butt: but
but-end, butt-end: but-end
buzz: buz / buzzed: buzd
by, bye, n:: by
caliber, -bre: caliber
calif, caliph, kalif, kaliph, etc:: calif or kalif
camomile, cham-: camomile
canceling, -elling: canceling
candor, candour: candor
caroling, -olling:- caroling
carve: carv carved: carvd
catalogue: catalog / catalogued: catalogd / cataloguer: cataloger
caucused, -ussed: caucust / caucusing, -ussing: caucusing
causative: causativ cauterise, -ize: cauterize
caviled, -illed: cavild / caviling, -illing: caviling
centre, center: center / centred: centerd
cess-pool, see sess-pool
chamois: see shammy
channeled, -elled: channeld / channeling, -elling: channeling
cheapen: cheapn / cheapened: cheapnd
chiseled, -elled: chiseld / chiseling,-elling: chiseling
chose: choze / chosen: chozen
chronicle: chronicl / chronicled: chronicld
cimitar: see scimitar
cipher: cifer / cipherd:- ciferd
circle: circl / circled: circld
citrine, citrin: citrin
cissors, see scissors
clattered: clatterd clavicle: clavicl
cleaned: cleand / cleanliness: clenliness / cleanly: clenly
cleanse: clenz / cleansed: cleanzd
close, v: cloze
collapse: collaps / collapsed: collapst
color: culor / colored: culord / colorable: culorabl
come: cum, cums
comfort: cumfort / comfortable: cumfortabl
companion: cumpanion / companionable: cumpanionabl
conceivable: conceivabl / conceive: conceiv / conceived: conceivd
confirmed: confirmd / confirmable: confirmabl
congealed: congeald / congealable: congealabl
cosy, cozy: cozy
councilor, councillor: councilor
counselor, counsellor: counselor
couple: cupl,cupls / coupled: cupld
courage: curage / courageous: curageous
courteous: curteous courtesan: curtesan
cover: cuver / covered: cuverd
cowed: cowd / cowered: cowerd
cosy, cozy: cozy
crackle: crackl / crackled: crackld
crooked: crook-ed, crookt
crumb: crum / crumbed:-crumd
crumple: crumpl / crumpled: crumpld
crutch: cruch / crutched: crucht
cuff: cuf / cuffed: cuft
crooked: crook-ed, crookt
cursed: curs-ed, curst
curve: curv / curved: curvd
dabble: dabl / dabbled: dabld
daggle: dagl / daggled: dagld
dammned: damd / damnable: damnabl
dandle: dandl / dandl dandld
dandruff, dandriff: dandruf, dandrif
dangle: dangl / dangled: dangld
dapple: dapl / dappled: dapld
deadening:- dedening deadly: dedly
deaf: def or deaf
deafened: defend / deafening: defening / deafness: defness
debt: det / debtor: dettor
deceive: deceiv / deceived: deceivd
decipher: decifer / deciphered: deciferd
decolor: deculor / decolorize: deculorize
defense, defence: defense / defensive: defensiv
definite: definit / definitive: definitiv
delight: delite / delighted: delited
demeanor, demeanour: demeanor
designed: designd / designable: designabl
determine: determin / determined: determind
develop, develope: develop / developed: developt
dialed, dialled: diald
dialist, diallist: dialist
dialing, dialling: dialing
diffuse, v.: diffuze
diffusive: diffusiv d
dimple: dimpl / dimpled: dimpld
discolored, -oured: disculord
disfavor, disfavour: disfavor / disfavored, disfavoured: disfavord
dishearten: dishartn / disheartened: dishartnd
dishonored, dishonoured: dishonord
dismantle: dismantl / dismantled: dismantld
dismissed: dismist / dismissive: dismissiv
dispensable: dispensab / dispensed: dispenst
dissemble: dissembl / dissembled: dissembld
dissolve: dissolv / dissolved: dissolvd
distill, distil: distil / distilled: distild
disuse, v.: disuze
domicile: domcil / domiciled: domicild
double: dubl, dubls / doubled: dubld
doubt: dout / doubtful: doutful
draft, draught: draft
draggle: dragl / draggled: dragld
draught, draft: draft
dread: dred / dreadful: dredful
dreamed: dreamd / dreamt: dremt
dribble: dribl / dribbled: dribld
driblet, dribblet: driblet
drummed: drumd d
duelist, duellist: duelist
dull: dul, duls / dulled: duld
dwelled, dwelt: dwelt
dwindle: dwindl / dwindled: dwindld
earn: ern / earned: ernd
earth: erth / earthen: erthen / earthling: erthling / earthly: erthly
ebb: eb / ebbed: ebd
eclipse: eclips / eclipsed: eclipst
-ed = d: d
-ed = t: t
effuse: effuze / effusive: effusiv
egg: eg / egged: egd
embezzle: embezl / embezzled: embezld
emboweled, embowelled: emboweld
emphasis: emfasis / emphasize: emfasize
enameled, enamelled: enameld
encircle: encircl / encircled: encircld
encompass: encumpas / encompasse: encumpast
endeavor, endeavour: endevor / endeavored, endeavoured: endevord
enfeeble: enfeebl / enfeebled: enfebld
enfeoff: enfef / enfeoffed: enfeft
engine: engin / enginery: enginry
enroll, enrol: enrol / enrolled: enrold
entangle: entangl / entangled: entangld
entrance, v.: entranse / entranced: entranst
epaulet, epaulette: epaulet
epigraph: epigraf epilogue: epilog
equaled, equalled: equald
err: er / erred: erd
etch: ech / etched: echt
evolve: evolv / evolved. evolvd
examine: examin / examined. examind
excuse, v.: excuze
explainable: explainabl / explained: explaind
expressed: exprest / expressive: expressiv
fashioned: fashiond / fashionable: fashionabl
fathomed: fathomd / fathomable: fathomabl
favor, favour: favor
feather: fether / feathered: fetherd / feathery: fethery
feign: fein / feigned: feind
fetch: fech / fetched: fetchd
fiber, fibre: fiber / fibered: fiberd
fiddle: fidl / fiddled: fidld
fill: fill / filled: fild
fiz: fizz / fizzed: fizd
flavor, flavour: flavor / flavored, flavoured: flavord
flied inched incht
focused: focust foible: foibl
forbade: forbad / forbidden: forbidn
foregone : foregon
forgone : forgon
fosse, foss: foss
frizz: friz / frizzed: frizd
frizzle: frizl / frizzled:: frizld
frolicked: frolickt / frolicsome: frolicsum
fulfill,fulfil: fulfil / fulfilled: fulfild
full: ful / fulled: fuld
furlough: furlo / furloughed: furloed
gabble: gabl / gabbled: gabbld
gamble: gambl / gambled: gambld
garble: garbl / garbled: garbld
gargle: gargl / gargled: gaglld
gazelle, gazel: gazel
gelatine, gelatin: gelatin
geographer: geografer / geographic: geografic /geography: geografy
ghastliness: gastliness / ghastly: gastly
girdle: girdl / girdled: girdld
gleaned: gleand glimpse: glimps
glycerine, glycerin: glycerin
gobble: gobl / gobbled: gobld
goggle: gogl / goggled: gogld
goiter, goitre: goiter
good-by, good-bye: good-by
govern: guvern / governed:guvernd
governess: guverness / government: guvernment
grease, v:: greaz, grease / greased: greazd, greast
grieve: griev grieved:: grievd
grill: gril / grilled: grild
grizzle: grizl / grizzled: grizld
groove: groov / grooved: groovd
guarantee: garantee / guaranty: garanty
guard: gard / guardian: gardian
guess: gess / guessed: gest / guest: gest
gurgle: gurgl / gurgled: gurgld
guzzle: guzl / guzzled: guzld
hackle: hackl / hackled: hackld
haggle: hagl / haggled: hagld
halve: halv,halvs / halved: halvd
handcuff: handcuf / handcuffed: handcuft
harangue: harang / harangued: harangd
harbor, harbour: harbor / harbored, harboured: harbord
hatched: hacht / hatchment: hachment
havock, havoc: havoc / havocked: havockt
health: helth / healthy: helthy
hearken: harken / hearkened: harkend
hearty: harty heather:
hether heave: heav
hiccough, hiccup: hiccof, hiccup / hiccoughed, hiccupped: hiccoft, hiccupt
hitch: hich / hitched: hicht
honey: huney / honeyed: huneyd
honor, honour: honor / honored, honoured: honord / honorable, honourable: honorabl
hooped: hoopt / hooping-cough; hooping-cof
horsed: horst hortative: hortativ
hough, hock: hock
house, v:: houz / housed: houzd / housing: houzing
huff: huf / huffed: huft
humor, humour: humor / humored, humoured: humord
hustle: hustl / hustled: hustld
hutch: huch / hutched: hucht
hyphen: hyfen / hyphened: hyfend
imaginable: imaginabl / imaginative: imaginativ / imagine: imagin / imagined: imagind
impressed: imprest / impressive: impressiv
inclose: incloze inclusive: inclusiv increased: increast incurred: incurd indexed: indext indicative: indicativ
inn: in inned: ind
instinctive : instinctiv
interleave: interleav / interleaved: interleavd
involve: involv / involved: involvd
jail, gaol: jail / jailed: jaild
jasmine: jasmin / jessamine: jessamin
jealous: jelous / jealousy: jelousy
jeopard: jepard / jeopardy: jepardy
joggle: jogl / joggled: jogld
jostle: jostl / jostled: jostld
journal: jurnal / journalism: jurnalism / journalist: jurnalist
journey: jurney / journeyed: journeyd
joust, just: just
juggle: jugl / juggled: jugld
key, quay: key
kill: kil / killed. kild
kindle: kindl / kindled. kindld
knuckle: knuckl / knuckled: knuckld
labor,labour: labor / labored, laboured: labord
lapse: laps / lapsed: lapst
latch: lach / latched: lacht
laugh: laf / laughed: laft / laughable: lafabl / laughter: lafter
lead (metal): led
lead (pret.) : led
league: leag / leagued: leagd
leaned: leand, lent
leaped, leapt: leapt, lept
learned: lern-ed, lernd / learning: lerning / learnt: lernt
leather: lether / leathern: lethern
leaven: leven / leavened: levend
leveled, levelled: leveld / leveling, levelling: leveling
lexicographer: lexicografer / lexicography: lexicografy
libeled, libled: libeld
lighten: lightn / lightened: lightnd
lithograph: lithograf / lithogroaphed: lithograft / lithographer: iithografer / lithography: lithografy
live: liv / lived: livd / livelong: livlong
loosed: loost / loosened: loosend
love: luv / loved: luvd
luff: luf / luffed: luft / luffed: luft
lull: lul / lulled: luld
lustre, luster: luster
lymph: lymf / lymphatic: lymfatic
maneuver, manoeuvre: maneuver / maneuvered, manoeuvred: maneuverd
marveled, marvelled: marveld
marvelous, marvellous: marvelous
materialise, materialize: materialize
measurable: mezurabl / measure: mezure / measured: mezurd
memorialise, memorialize: memorialize
mephitic: mefitic / mephitis: mefitis
metamorphose: metamorfose / metamorphosis: metamorfosis
metre, meter: meter
middle: midl / middling: midling
mill: mil / milled: mild
miserable: miserabl misgive: misgiv
misuse, v:: misuze mitre, miter: miter
mouse, v:: mouz / mouser: mouzer
muff: muf / muffed: muft
muffle: mufl / muffled: mufld
mumble: mumbl / mumbled: mumbld
muzzle: muzl / muzzled: muzld