Friday, May 24, 2013

Old English Latinates – Part One

Warning: Simplified and/or fonetic spelling ahed!

Owing to the length of the list, it is split into two. This is Part One A thru D. Part Two is here.

This is a qwick list of Old English (OE) words borrow'd from Latin (mostly church Latin from Greek) and Greek (most thru church Latin) words. Some of these are erly Germanish/Teutonish meaning that they were borrow'd well before the Saxons came to what is now England and are gemean (common) to the G/T tungs. Even the words that are "up in the air" as to whether they truly came from Latin or not, are here. There is a sunder deal below for a few words that hav the G/T root shared with Latin.

Things to keep in mind. Nearly every shire said words otherly, thus there was no ONE way to say the words:

  • the staf c was both k and, in Late West Saxon (LWS) speech, ch … thus circ = kirk and church … portic could be portik (portico) or portich (porch)
  • the  sc could be sk or LWS sh
  • the g () could be hard like get (OE etan) or soft (much like todayʼs y in year (OE ear) 
  • The vowels are a mess …
  • ā often became todayʼs ō but sometimes ei or ī 
  • æ is like the a in ash or ā but NOT ē (see)… however the long ǣ often became todayʼs ea … rǣswung, rēsung, rēsong ‘reasoning’
  • eo is itʼs own mess … e, ee, eu, o, u … 
  • the y is like the German ü or oo; the long ȳ often became todayʼs long ī but not always

Todayʼs English notes another way of spelling than does OE. Shortly after the Norman-French Takeover, English nearly stoppt being a written tung for nearly 100 years. Sore few wrote anything in English. When written English did once again come out, it took on many of the spelling ways (orthography) of French. Not only did English take some of the French ways of spelling but often took the French spelling of the word itself! Later, in the 1500s and 1600s when Latin rule'd the roost so to speak, many words were edspelt (respelt) to match up the the Latin root (some mistakenly so, such as putting the s into iland for island and the c in sithe for scythe). Thus OE sicor (ME siker, sikur), from Latin securus, was edspelt secure. Same word, same meanings.

Best way to note this list is to note your browserʼs find and look for the word and do it more than once.

Part One A thru D


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English (if one) – OE – meaning [Latin/Greek root] … marks

A

abbot – abbod m. – ‘abbotʼ [from church Latin abbas, abbat-, from Greek abbas ‘father’ from Aramaic ῾abbā ‘father’]

accent – accent m. – ‘accentʼ [from Latin accentus ‘tone, signal, or intensity’ (from ad- ‘to’ + cantus ‘song’), oversetting Greek prosōidia ‘a song sung to music, intonation’]

accord – acordan – ‘accord’, agree, reconcile, to make terms [from Latin ad- ‘to’ + cor, cord- ‘heart’] LOE? (Chr 1120)

acid – æced, eced mn. – ‘acid’, vinegar [Teutonish, from Latin acidus, from acere ‘be sour, sharp’, from the IE root *ak ‘thirl’; whence Greek akme ‘acme, highest point’, OE ecg ‘edg, sword’, and English egg ‘to goad’]

acolyte – acolitus m. – ‘acolyteʼ [Latin acolytus, from Greek akolouthos ‘follower’]

accuse – acusan – ‘to accuseʼ, becall [Latin accusare ‘call to account’, from ad- ‘toward’ + causa ‘reason, motiv, lawsuit’]

adamant – aþamans m. – ‘adamant’ [Latin from Greek adamas, adamant,‘untamable, invincible’, from a- ‘not’ + daman ‘to tame.’  Same root for diamond.]

æbs f? – fir-tree, [L. abies]

æstel m. – book-mark [Latin hastula, mayhap from hasta ‘spear’]

alb – alb, albe f. – white garment [likely Latin albus ‘white’, however liken OE ælf ‘elf’ from the ur-Germanic *albiz which also spawnd the Old Norse álfr, Middle High German elbe, and Gothic *albs. *Albiz likely is from the IE root *albh- ‘white’, whence also stems the Latin albus.]

almond – magdala-trêow n. – almond-tree [from Latin amygdala, from Greek amugdalē] … today’s spelling from Old French alemande

alms – ælmes, ælmesse f. – ‘almsʼ, almsgiving [from church Latin eleemosyna, from Greek eleēmosunē ‘compassion’, from eleēmōn ‘compassionate’, from eleos ‘mercy’]

altar – alter, altar(e), altre m. – ‘altarʼ [Teutonish: O.H.Ger. , O.Sax. áltári (-eri) m.; O.Frs. altare (-er) m.; Icel. altari; rooted on late Latin altar, altarium, from Latin altus ‘high’]

Amazon – Amazan f. – Amazon [from Greek Amazōn, atold by the Greeks as ‘without a breast’ (as if from a- ‘without’ + mazos ‘breast’), owing to the tale that the Amazons cut off the right breast so as not to hinder the shooting of a bow, but likely a folk etymology of an unknown elend word.] … þa wíf fortendon þæt swýþre breóst fóran, þæt hit weaxan ne sceolde, þæt hí hæfden þý strengran scyte; forþon hí mon hét on Greácisc Amázanas, … the women fortended (sear'd) off the stronger (right) breast, that it ne should grow, that they hav them stronger shot; for-that one hight them in Greek: Amazons, … 

amber mfn. – vessel, pail, pitcher, tankard: cask, dry or liquid measure ( four bushels) [unk, mayhap from Latin (from Greek) amphora, see ampule below] … two ambers = one mitta

amel m. – sacred vessel [L. amula?]

amen – amen – amen, so be it [from church Latin, from Greek amēn, from Hebrew ' āmēn ‘truth, certainty’ ] … God ūre helpe. Amen … Swt. A. S. Rdr. 112, 225.

ampule, ampulla – ampella, ampolla, ampulla m. – A vial, bottle, flask, flagon, vessel [Teutonish, Ger. ampel, O.H.Ger. ampulla, ampla, O.Nrs. ampli, hömpull, likely from Latin ampulla, littling of ampora, from amphora, from Greek amphoreu]

ameos – ‘ammeosʼ, bishop-weed [Greek]

angel – angel, ængel, engel,  m. – angel, messenger [church Latin angelus, from Greek angelos ‘messenger’] … spelling sway'd by French … not to be befuddl'd with the other OE angel ‘angle, hook’ which is of Teut. rise (see after-writ below).

anchor – ancor m. – ‘anchorʼ  [erly Germanish A loan-word found before 1000 AD among the English, as well as the MidEur. and northern Teutons; from Latin ancora; from Greek ankura. The IE root seems to be *ak, *ank ‘bend’, whence OE angel ‘angle, hook’. Today’s spelling anchor is from anchora, a Latin spelling mistake.]

anchorite – āncor, -cora m. – ‘anchorite’, hermit [L. anachoreta; from Gk. anakhōrētēs, from anakhōrein ‘retire,’ from ana- ‘back’ + khōra, khōr- ‘a place’] anchor and anchorite are not akin.

animal – animal – animal [from Latin animal, based on Latin animalis ‘having breath’, from anima ‘breath’; whence also animus ‘spirit, mind’ whence animosity, liken OE anda ‘emotion of mind — animus, malice, envy, hatred, anger, zeal, annoyance, vexation’; the IE root is *an ‘to breathe’ which shows up not only in the Skt. an ‘to breathe, blow, live’, but also in Goth us-anan ‘to breathe out, expire’—Mark xv. 37, 39; and in Icel. anda ‘to breathe’, and ‘breath’, whence aande, ande, aynd ‘breath’.] … Animal is ǣlc þing ðæt orþaþ … 5 ; Som. 4, 41

anthem, antiphone – antefn, antefen m. – antiphone, ‘anthem’ [from church Latin antiphona, from Greek antiphōna ‘harmonies’, neuter plural of antiphōnos ‘responsiv’, from anti ‘in return’ + phōnē ‘sound’]
> antefnere, antemnere, antifonere m. – book of antiphons, antiphonary

Antichrist – Antecrist m. – Antichrist [Greek anti ‘against’] … However, OE an-, and-, ant-, ont-, unt- = Greek anti

āpinsian – to weigh, estimate, ponder, recount [a + pinsian, from Latin pensare ‘to weigh’] … see pinsian
> a pinsung – estimation

apostate – apostata m. – ‘apostate’, OE sliten [church Latin apostata, from Greek apostatēs ‘apostate, runaway slave’]

apostle – apostol, apostel m. – ‘apostleʼ, discipl [church Latin apostolus; from Greek apostolos ‘messenger’, from apostellein ‘send forth’, from apo- ‘away, from, forth’ and stellein ‘send’]

April – Aprélis m. – April [So call'd for that it is the month when the earth opens to giv new fruit, from Lat. aperire ‘to open’, … whence also aperient, aperitif, aperture]

aprotane f. – southernwood, wormwood [L. abrotonum; from Greek άβρότονον ]

arbalast – arblast – a crossbow [LOE? (1079), from Old French arbaleste, from late Latin arcubalista, from Latin arcus ‘bow’ (liken to OE earh)+ ballista (rooted on Greek ballein ‘to throw, cast’ … whence ballistic, problem] … Mid anan arblaste ofscoten, Chr. 1079 | the spelling -blast  might hav arisen from befuddling with OE blæst ‘blast’ in that the arrow blasted, blew off the crossbow.

arch- – arce (æ, e) m. – chief, main as in archiepiscopal pallium or arch-rival [Latin from Greek arkhi-, from arkhos ‘chief’]

arctic, antarctic – arctos; acc. of arcton; f. –  [from Latin arcticus, articus, from Greek, άρκτος ‘bear, Ursa Major, North Star’]

argentille f. – argentilla (plant) [from Latin argentum ‘silver’ … whence argent]

ark – arc mf. (also earc, earce) – ark, coffer, chest, box [from Latin arca ‘chest’ … whence also arcane]

asp – aspide m. – asp, viper, serpent [likely from Lat. acc. aspidem, from nom. aspis, or mayhap straight from Greek aspis‘asp’]

ass – assa m., asse f., assen f. – ass [Teutonish, O.Nrs. asni, m.: mayhap from OIr assan, akin to Welsh asyn, Breton azen, mayhap akin to or rooted on Latin asinus] … Skeat says: The origin of the word is unknown, and to what extent one language has borrowed it from another is very uncertain … (Skeat, p35, ass). He links it with esol, see esol below.

asterion n, – pellitory [from Greek άστέριον ‘asterion’] … the root is aster- … asteroid, asterik

atom – atomos – ‘atom’ [from Greek atomos ‘indivisible, uncut’ based on a- ‘not, un-’ + temnein ‘to cut’] … Ic wéne, lá, uplendisca preóst, ðæt ðú nyte hwæt beó atomos … 

atrum n. – ink  [L. atramentum, from ater ‘black’ which is the Latin word more often noted for ink] … Anglo word for ink was blæc

August, august – Augustus, Agustus – [from Latin augustus ‘consecrated, venerable’, from augere ‘to increase, extol, magnify, promote to honor’, whence also augment; akin to English eke. The month is named after Augustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor] … Ðæt wæs on ðære tīde calendas Agustus and on ðæm dæge ðe wē hātaþ hlāfmæsse — it was on the first of August, on the day that we call Lammas … Ors. 5, 13; Swt. 246, 17.

awm – ōma? m. ome? f. – awm (40 gallons) [Teutonish, Ger Ohm; rooted on middl Latin (h)ama ‘water bucket’; likely from Greek αμη ‘water pail’]

B

bæzera, bæzere, bæcere, bæstere –  a baptizer [Celtic, from church Latin baptizare, from Greek baptizein ‘dip, bedive, baptize’]

balm, balsam – balsam, balzam n. – balsam, balm [from Latin balsamum, from Greek balsamon, likely semitic, liken Hebrew basam ‘balsam’] … whence also embalm
> bals-minte – balsam-mint

barbaric, barbarus – bærbær  – barbaric, barbarus [from Latin barbarus, or straight from Greek barbaros ‘foreign’]

barge – barþ, barda m. – beakt ship, a kind of ship, a light vessel to sail or row [unknown, mayhap from MidLat. barica, from Greek baris ‘Egyptian boat.’; However Wedgwood says: The origin is probably the Icel. barki, the throat, then the bows or prow of a ship, pectus navis, and hence probably (by a metaphor …) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. … Wedgwood, p76, barge, bark … today’s spelling from OFr. barge]

basilisk – basilisca m. – ‘basilisk’ [from Latin, from Greek basiliskos ‘little king, serpent’, from basileus ‘king’]

bastard – bastard m – ‘bastard’ [from O.French bastard, from bast + -ard; after that the upspring is gainsaid; OFr bast ‘packsaddle’ was likely so name for that it was bewried with woven bast (Skeat, p54, bastard). Bast is of Teutonish upspring (OE bæst, English bast, Dutch bast, German Bast), whence also the low-Latin bastum ‘packsaddle’] … Found in the Chronicles for 1066. Not amazingly, the word became widespred after William took over. It even spred to the Celtic tungs.

beet – bēte f. – ‘beetʼ, beetroot [Teutonish, likely from Latin beta, mayhap of Celtic rise; akin to Dutch beet and German Bete] … Or could be an early Teutonish borrowing from the Celtic. 

belt – belt m. – ‘belt’, girdle [Teutonish from urGmc *baltjaz, (OHGer. palz, balz, m. a girdle : Ger. Belt, m. name of the narrow straits between the Danish isles : Dan. belte a belt : Swed. bälte, id : O. Nrs. belti, n. id : Lat. balteus … Here it seems to be a cognate, but OED calls it from Latin balteus ‘girdle’, … Skeat thinks it may be Celt … or mayhap from the Teutonish?] It’s found as a gloss to balteus: ‘baltheus, belt’ also ‘Balteum, gyrdel, oþþe belt’.

mangle, manke, mankit – bemancian – to maim [However, Kluge writes: Teut. root mang, mangw … may be primit. allied to Lat. mancus, ‘mutilated, powerless, deficient’, from which early derivatives were formed in E., AS. gemancian, ‘to mutilate’ …  p226, Mangln] … see also mancus in part II.

betony – betonice,  betonica f. – ‘betony’ [from Latin betonica, mayhap from the name of an Iberian maegth]

bibliotheca, bible – biblio-þéce, an; f. –  I. a library; bibliotheca II. a gathering of books in one volume, hence, - The Bible [from Greek βιβλιοθήκη, from βιβλίον ‘a book’ (whence biblio-; plural is βιβλια, whence Bible), θήκη ‘repository, a library’]

bisæc – wallet [Latin bisaccium] … we see the forefast bi- here as well: bi-saccium (two sacks)

bises m. – the extra day intercalated in leap year [from Latin bissextus from bis ‘twice’ and sex ‘six’; so calld for that the intercalated day (formerly Feb. 24) was called the sixth day before the calends of March (March 1); so that there were two days of the same name]
> bisextile – bissextus, gen. -te – the intercalary day of leap year: leap year

bezant – bizant m. – bezant (a gold coin) [from Latin byzanteum from Byzantius ‘Byzantine’]

bishop – bisceop, biscop, biscep m. –  a BISHOP, prelate; a chief priest of the Jews; pontifex; a heathen priest of the Romans and Egyptians; elderman  [Teutonish: O. Sax. biskop; Dut. bisschop; Ger., MHGer. bischof; OHGer. piscof; Goth. aipiskaupus; Dan. bisp; Swed. biskop; ONrs. biskup. From church Latin episcopus [e-piscop-us], from Greek έπίσκoπos ‘an overseer’, from έπί ‘upon, over’ + σκoπós ‘one who watches’, -σκoπέω ‘to look, watch, consider, contemplate’ … whence also espicopal
> arcebisceop, -biscop 
> bisceop-dóm, -gegyrelan, ,hád, -hyrde, -líc, -ríce, -roc, -scír, -seld, -seðel, -setl, -stól, -þénung, -wíte, -wyrt
> bisceopian, biscopgan


bottle, butt, boot – byt, bytt, (e) f., pl. bytta – A bottle, flagon, BUTT, tun [Teutonish, Ger. butte, bütte, f; MHGer. büte, bütte, f; Dan. bötte, m. f; Swed, bytta, f; Icel. bytta, f.] … ¿OED calls butt Middle English from late Latin buttis ‘cask, wineskin’ ? And whence buttis? It could be a late Latin borrowing from Greek butis, boutis ‘flask’ (timeframe of the Greek?) or it could be the other way … a late or middle Latin borrowing from Teut. and a late Greek borrowing from Latin. Kluge takes it back to middle Latin butina (OHG butin) but then stops. The are many more shards hanging about to befuddl this even more. Leav it to say, the upspring is more than murky.

box – box mn. – box-tree, ‘boxʼ, case, [Teutonish, maybe from late Latin buxis, from Latin pyxis ‘boxwood box’, from Greek puxos or an IE root]

braccas mp. – breeches ¿[from Latin braca, (plural) bracae ‘breeches’]? … same root for bracket … or from OE braccan; OED givs brēc (plural of brōc, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch broek) as the root for breeches and Klug, p44, Bruch writes: … the Gall.-Lat. word is more likely borrowed from Teut.

bulb – bul, bula m. – ornament (bulb) [Latin bulla ‘a stud, knob, water bubble’, from bulbus, from Greek bolbos ‘onion, bulbus root’]
> bulberende – wearing an ornament

butter – butere f. – ‘butterʼ [early Teutonish, Latin butyrum, from Greek bouturon ‘cow cheese’] … same root for butyric acid, whence butane and butanol.

C

capstan? – cæbester, cæfester n. – halter, head-stall [likely from Provençal from cabestre ‘halter’ (later cabestan) or straight from Latin capistrum, from capere ‘seize’] … said also whence also capstan … However, liken cæfl ‘bit, muzzle, gag’ [Icel. kefli ‘a piece of wood, a gag’, English kevel]

calc I. m. – shoe, sandal [L. calceus] … chalk? see CHALK below

calends (whence calendar) – cālend m. – ‘calendsʼ, the beginning of a month, month, Men: (Poetic) span of life, appointed time. [from Latin kalendae, calendae ‘first day of the month’ (when accounts were due and the order of days was proclaimed); related to Latin calare and Greek kalein ‘call, proclaim’] … the anglo word for calendar was gerīm / gerīmbōc

cāma m. – muzzle, collar, bit [from Latin camo ‘halter’]

camel – camel m. – camel [from Latin camelus, from Greek kamēlos, of Semitic origin]

camp, campus – camp (o) – field, plain [Teutionish, mayhap, from Latin campus ‘level ground’, enkerly put to the Campus Martius in Rome, known for games, athletic begoing, and military drill] … mark that there is also the OE rooted camp … battle, see Onhenge below. They may share the same IE root or the Latin camp may be a borrowing from the Teutonish!

cancer, canker – cancer m. – cancer [from Latin cancer ‘crab or creeping ulcer’, oversetting Greek karkinos] 

candle – candel, candell, condel, condell fn. – ‘candleʼ, glim, lamp, lantern [from Latin candela, from candere ‘be white or glisten’]

canon – canon m. – canon, rule [L. canon, from Greek kanōn ‘rule, ruler’, from the straight joint of a cane, from Greek kanna, kannē, of Semitic rise] … whence also canister, cannon, channel canones bēc – canonical books

canticle, chant – cantic, canticsang m. – canticle, song, cantel [from Latin canticulum ‘little song’, littling of canticum, from cantare, from canere ‘sing’, from an IE root of *kan ‘to sing’, whence English hen (from the fem shape of OE hana, ‘cock’] … whence also cant
> cantere m. – singer, chanter
> canterstæf m. – chanter’s staff

cant, cantle – cantel m. n, – buttress, support [Teutonish, from medieval Latin cantellus, from cantus ‘corner, side’, from Greek kanthos ‘corner of the eye’] … root of cant ‘slope, tilt’

cap – cæppe f. – ‘capʼ, cope, hood. [mayhap from late Latin cappa ‘covering for the head’]

capitel = capitol
capitelhūs n. – chapter-hous
capit-ol, -ul, -ula m. – chapter (cathedral or monastic): chapter (division of a book), lesson; anthem. [from Latin capitalis, from caput, capit ‘head’]
> gecapitulod – divided into chapters
> capitolmæsse f. – early mass, first mass.

capon – capun m. – ‘caponʼ [Teutonish, from Latin capōnem, from capo ‘capon’, likely from Greek kapon]

carbuncle – carbunculus m. – carbuncle [from Latin carbunculus ‘small coal’, from carbo ‘coal, charcoal’] … whence also carbon
carcern, -ærn n. – prison, jail. [Latin carcer ‘prison’, ungewiss upspring] … whence incarcerate

card, charter, chart – carte (æ) f. – paper for writing on; document, deed, chart, carta [Latin charta ‘paper, papyrus leaf’, from Greek khartēs ‘papyrus leaf’] … same root for cartel.

caricum dp. of sb. – with dried figs [L. carica]

carriage – cearricge – a vehicle, wain [Mayhap from Low Latin carrigiura, carruca, carriga; from Latin carrus, from Celtic (Bret. karr ‘a chariot’, Welsh car ‘a raft, frame, drag’, OGael car ‘a cart, car, or raft for carrying things on’, Irish carr ‘a cart, dray, waggon’) … liken OHGer. karruh carruca which Kluge says is Celtic thru Latin]

case – cæpse f. – case, box [from Latin capsa, akin to capere ‘to hold’ … today's spelling from Old French casse] … same root for capsule and mayhap cash, the OE word still had the p as in capsule

case – cāsus m. – case [from Latin cāsus ‘fall’, akin to cadere ‘to fall’; (grammar) oversetting from Greek ptōsis (πτῶσις) ‘fall’, from πίπτω ‘I fall’]

castle – castel I. m. – ‘castleʼ, fort II. ~ n. – town, village [Latin castellum, littling of castrum ‘fort’, from IE root *skad ‘shild’, from *ska ‘cover’ … whence shade, shadow] … found before 1066, thus not LOE, see chester

catacomb – catacumbe – catacomb [from late Latin catacumbas, the name of the underground burial grounds of St. Sebastian near Rome, from Greek kata ‘down, below’ and cumbi ‘a hollow, cavity, hollow place’]

chasuble – casul m. – over-garment, birrus, cloak, [Latin casubla, shift of Latin casula ‘hooded cloak or little cottage’, littling of casa ‘house’]

cedar – ceder nmf. – cedar. [Latin cedrus, from Greek kedros]

cell – cell m. – (monastic) cell [Latin cella ‘storeroom, chamber, small room, hut’ , akin to Greek kalia ‘hut’ … from IE *kal ‘to hide’ … whence conceal]
> celmertmonn m. – hireling [likely kin  to Ger. Kellner ‘waiter’, from, MHG. kelnare ‘butler’, from Mid Lat. cellenarius, from Lat. cellarius ‘steward, butler’, from cella; this likely means that sum shape of cellar (found in all the other Teut. tungs) stood in OE as well but not found in any writs]

cemes f. – shirt [L. camisia]

ceren I. (æ, y) n – new wine, sweet wine. [L. carenum] 

chalice – calic m. – ‘chaliceʼ [Teutonish, from Latin calix, calic- ‘cup’; akin to Greek κύλιξ ] … later spelling swayd by French

chancellor – canceler m. – chancellor, [from Late Latin canceliarium, cancellarius ‘porter, secretary’ (originally a court official at the grating keeping the folk from deemers), from cancelli ‘crossbars’]

chaplain – LOE capellan m. – chaplain [L. cappellanus] … same root for chapel 

cheese – cyse, cese m. – [Teutonish, Plat. kese:  O. Sax. kísi, m: Dut. kaas, f: Kil. kaese, kese: Frs. tzys: O. Frs. kise, tzise, m: Ger. käse, m: MHGer. kæse, m: OHGer. kasi, m: … Lat. caseus: Wel. caws, m; Corn. caus, cos, ces, m: Ir. cais: Gael. caise: Manx caashey, m: Armor. caouz. ] … looks more like a shar'd IE root or a mighty erly borrowing (mayhap straight from Celtic); oddly, Skeat says: the Celtic ones are perhaps cognate while at the time saying: The Teutonic forms were probably all borrowed … Why are the Celtic cognate and the Teutonish borrow'd?

cherry – ciris-, cirse, cyrse – [from medieval Latin ceresia, based on Greek kerasos ‘cherry tree, cherry’ ]
> cherry – cirisæppel (cherry apple)
> cherry tree – cirisbēam m.  
> cherry tree – ciristreow, cyrstreow n.

chervil – cerfelle, -fille f. – ‘chervilʼ [from Latin chaerephylla, from Greek khairephullon]

chest, cistern – cest, cist, cyst f. – ‘chestʼ, casket, coffin; rush basket, cistern [Teutonish, Dut. kist, kast: Kil. kiste: O. Frs. kiste: Ger. MHGer. kiste, f: OHGer. kista, f: Dan. kiste, m. f: Swed. Icel. kista, f: Lat. cista: Grk. kiste  a chest, box: Manx kishtey, m. a chest: Armor. kest, f. a basket.; all likely rooted on Greek kistē ‘box’ or PIE root] … there is another root for cist, cyst meaning choice.

chester, castor, caistor – ceaster, cæster, cester f, n – A city, fort, castle, town [likey from Latin castrum ‘fort’. The names of places ending in -caster and -chester were likely sites of a castruma fortress’, built by the Romans; the Saxon word is burg, burh] … see castle abuv.
> ceast – strife [Teutonish or Latin? Kluge calls it Teut.]

choir, chorus – chor, chora m. – dance, choir (singers); church-choir (place) [from Latin chorus, from Greek khoros ]
> chor-gleów n. [gleó, gleów - glee, joy, music] – A musical dance, dance

chrism – crism – chrism [from medieval Latin crisma, from church Latin chrisma, from Greek khrisma ‘anointing’, from khriein ‘anoint’] … likely, at least sumhwat, also the root for cream.

Christ – Crīst, Krīst m. – Christ [from Latin Christus, from Greek Khristos, noun use of an adjectiv meaning ‘anointed’, from khriein ‘anoint’, translating Hebrew māshīaḥ ‘Messiah’]
> Christian – cristen m. crist(e)na f. – ‘Christianʼ, Cristen
> Christendom – cristendom m. – ‘Christendomʼ, the church, Christianity
> Christian (adj) – cristenlic, crîstlic – Christen, Christian, Christian-like, Christ-like
> Christian baptism – crîstennes, crîstnes f. – Christianity: Christian baptism
> Christmas – crîstmæsse f. – Christmas
> christen – cristnian – to anoint with chrism (as a catechumen), ‘christenʼ, baptize, catechize
> Christening – cristnung f. – christening, anointing with chrism or holy oil
> crīstes-mæl, -mēl mn. – (Christʼs mark), the cross. 
> cristnere m. – catechist.

chronic, chronicle – cranic m. – record, chronicle. [Latin from Greek khronika ‘annals’, from khronikos (chronic) ‘of time’, from khronos ‘time’ ]
> cranicwrītere m. – chronicler

church – circe f., circ-, ciric- – kirk, church [medieval Greek kurikon, from Greek kuriakon (dōma) ‘Lordʼs (house)’, from kurios ‘master or lord’; however, Barnes writes: “The stem, K—r, or K—r—k, however, in the Teutonic speech, means an inclosing line, or ring, and Chirihhe (old German) and Kirche (middle German) means a Ring or Round; and it is more likely that kirk, kirche, was used for a holy inclosure even in heathen times, and that kirk, kirche, church, means the (hallowed) inclosure. (Barnes, Early English, p108). I would say that the stem k-r or k-r-k matches Greek krikos ‘circul’. 

Excerpt From: W. Barnes. “Early England and the Saxon-English; with Some Notes on the Father-stock of the Saxon-English, the Frisians.” iBooks. ]

cilice – cilic m. – sack-cloth of hair [from Latin cilicium, from Greek kilikion, from Kilikia, the Greek name for Cilicia in Asia Minor (hair shirts were made of Cilician goatsʼ hair)]
cīpe (īe) f. – onion. [L. cepa]
> cīpelēac n. – leek

cipersealf f. – henna-ointment [L. cypros]

circle – circul m. – circle: cycle, zodiac [L. circulum, from circus ‘ring’; littling of circus ‘a circul, a ring’; from the IE root *kar, whence OE hring, English ring ‘circul’, Greek krikos; today’s spelling is owing to the sway of French cercle.]
> circolwyrde m. – computer, mathematician 

cistenbēam m.  – chestnut-tree [L. castanea]

cithern, cittern, gittern – citere, citre, cytere f. – cithara, harp [from Latin cithara or straight from Greek kithara ‘a kind of harp’] … whence also guitar

clerk, cleric – clerc, cleric (-ec, -oc; clerus) m. – ‘clerkʼ in holy orders; clerk in minor orders [from church Latin clericus ‘clergyman’, from Greek klerikos ‘belonging to the Christen clergy’, from klēros ‘lot, heritage, share’ (Acts 1:26) … ‘the Lord is their inheritance’] … whence also clerisy

close – clūs, clūse f. – bar, bolt; enclosure; closet, cell, prison; narrow passaj, defile [from Latin clausum ‘enclosure’ and clausus ‘clos'd’, past participle of claudere ‘to close’ ] … whence also cloister, liken to OE clūster ‘cell’
> beclusan – to enclose, shut in, close in
> clūstor, clūster – lock, bar, barrier, cell 
> clȳsan – to close
> clȳsung f. – enclosure, apartment; closing, period, conclusion of a sentence, clause
> forclusian, forclysian – to for(e)close, to shut off 

cloister – clūstor n. – lock, bar, barrier: enclosure, cloister, cell, prison. [Teutionish, from Latin claustrum, clostrum ‘lock, enclosed place’, from claudere ‘to close’] … not cluster which is OE clyster
> clustercleafa – prison-chamber, cell (cloister-cleve)

cock – cocc m. – cock, male bird, [Teutonish, mayhap from medieval Latin coccus of onomatopoetic origin] … Kluges says: There is no reason for thinking that the Teut. word was borrowed from Rom. … Kluge, 197, Küchlein; Skeat at first calls it LOE but then says: The fact is, that the word is of imitative origin, and appears in the same form in E., F., and Gk. … Skeat, p794, cock.

cohort – coorte f. – cohort [Latin cohors, cohort- ‘yard, retinue’ … same root for court] … see also OE corþor, corþer (corps) below

cole, kale – cawel, cawl, caul m. – cole, colewort, cabbage, kale [Teutonish, Frs. koal, kool: Dut. kool, f: Ger. kohl, m: MHGer. köle, kol, m: OHGer. kól: Dan. kaal, m. f: Swed. kál, m: Icel. kál, n: Fr. chou, m: Span. col, m: Ital. cavolo, m: Lat. caulis, m: Grk.  GREEK , m: Wel. cawl: Corn, caul, m: Ir. cál: Gael. cál; m: Manx kail, f: Armor. kaol, m. likely from Latin caulis ‘stem, cabbage’, from Greek?]

colter, cutler, couler – culter m. – coulter, colter, dagger, knife [likely from Latin culter ‘knife, plowshare’]

column – columne f. – column [from Latin columna ‘pillar’, from Latin columen ‘a top, height, summit’, from culmen ‘the highest, summit’ (whence culminate), from IE *kal, to rise up; whence also OE, English holm ‘mound, hill, rising ground > iland’.]

comet – comēta m. – comet [from Latin cometa, from Greek komētēs ‘long-haired (star),’ from komē ‘hair’]

consolde f. – comfrey [Latin consolida]
consul, counsel – consul m. – consul [from Latin, akin to consulere ‘take counsel, consult’, IE root ungewiss] … whence also consult

cook – cōc, kōk m. – cook  [Teutonish, seemingly from vulgar Latin cocus, from Latin coquus, rooted on Latin coquere ‘to cook’] … Skeat says: The word so closely resembles the Latin that it must have been borrowed, and is not cognate. … For a short, one-syllable word, that seems a rather flimsy reason for calling it borrow'd.

copper – coper, copor n. – copper [late Latin cuprum, from Latin cyprium aes, ‘Cyprus brass’ (so named because Cyprus was the chief source), from Gk.Κυπιos ‘Cyprian’]
> coppern – cypren – made of copper, copper [copor] 

cordwainer – cordewānere m. – cordwainer, shoemaker [from Old French cordewan‘of Cordoba’ (a town in Spain, whence also cordovan)]

coriander – celendre, cellendre, f; celender, cellender n. – coriander [from Latin coriandrum, from Greek koriannon] … Genim þás wyrte, þe man coliandrum, and, óþrum naman þam gelíce, cellendre. 

corps – corþor, corþer fn. – troop, band, multitude, throng, retinue; pomp [mayhap from Latin corpus ‘body’] … see also coorte (cohort) abuv

corona – corōna m. – crown [from Latin corona,‘wreath, crown’
> gecorōnian – to crown 

cowl – cugle, cug(e)le, cuhle, cūle f. – cap, ‘cowlʼ, hood, head-covering [Teutonish, mayhap from Latin cuculla, from Latin cucullus ‘hood of a cloak’] … However, for Eng. cowl, liken also OE caul, cawl – a basket

coven – cofen, cofan – Cofen-treo (Coventry) [either an adj of cove from OE cofa ‘chamber, cave’ (the coven-tree) or from Latin convenire ‘assemble, agree, fit,’ from con- ‘together’ + venire ‘come’, in the meaning of the gathering-tree]

cover – cofer, cofor – Coferflod (Cover-flood, Sea of Galilee) [a deal of a kenning; mayhap rooted on Latin cooperire, from co- (showing intensiv) + operire ‘to cover, shut, hide’] … see also OE acofrian (acover) ‘recover’ [from urTeut. *er-cober-an; whence also Teut. kover ‘to recuperate, recover from war’]

creed – crēda m. – creed, belief, confession of faith [from Latin credo ‘I believ’ … whence ‘credible’

crisp – crisp, cyrsp – curly [OED has: from Latin crispus ‘curled’. Other senses may result from symbolic interpretation of the sound of the word.] … However, notwithstanding the cyr root, Kluge says that it is not the root of curl.
> cyrspian – to curl

cross, crux – cruc m. – cross, crux [LOE, likely from Latin crucem, acc. of crux or from crux ‘cross’ itself … or from OE cryc(c) ‘crutch’ …  Later spelling sway'd by Provençal cros.]

crown – corenbēg m. – crown, (literally, chosen-ring [ring, crown of the chosen]) [L. corona?] … or coren (pp. of cēosan) chosen, elect, choice

cruft, crypt – cruft m, crufte f. – crypt, vault, hollow stow underground [likely from Latin crypta, from Greek kruptē ‘a vault’, from kruptos ‘hidden’, however, there is also OHG gruft ‘cave, hollow’ whence Ger. Gruft … which may also be borrow'd.]

crystal – cristalla m – I. crystal II. the herb crystallium, flea-bane, flea-wort [from Latin crystallum, from Greek krustallos ‘ice, crystal’ ]

cucumber – cucumis m. – cucumber [from Latin cucumis]

cucurbite f. – gourd [from Latin cucurbita ‘gourd’]

cuceler, cucelere, cuculer, cucler m. – spoon, half a drachm [mayhap from Latin cochlear or OE ]

culpa – culpa m. – culpa, fault, blame [from Latin culpa ‘fault, blame; mistake’ … whence also culpable and likely culprit]
> culpian – cringe, humiliate, accept blame 

cumin – cymen I. mn. – cumin [from Latin cuminum, from Greek kuminon, likely of Semitic upspring and akin to Hebrew kammōn, Arabic kammūn]

cumpæder m. – godfather [from Latin compater ‘godfather’] … liken Spanish compadre, French compere

cuneglæsse f. – houndʼs tung [from Latin cynoglossum, from Greek kuōn, kun- ‘dog’]

cup – cuppe f. – cup [Teutonish, Plat. kop-jen, kop-ken ‘a little basin’; Frs. OFrs. Dut. kop, m; Dan. kop, m. f; Swed. kopp, m; Icel. koppr, m; Lat. cupa, f. ‘tub, cask’: Grk. κυπελλον (kupellon)  ‘cup, goblet’ … κυπη ‘hole, hollow’; Wel. cwpan, f, cwb, m; Ir. cupa; Sansk. kūpa, kumbha, m. ‘pit well, hollow, a vessel for water’] … mayhap OE from popular Latin cuppa, itself may be from Latin cupa ‘tub’ or, more likely, all ar from the IE root *ku ‘to contain’ since a like word is found in all IE tungs; see keev in Part II.

cyll, cylle, cille, kulle mf. leather bottle, flagon, vessel [mayhap from Latin ‘culeus, culleus’ tho Kluge writes: the AS. word is based upon Lat. culleus, ‘leather bag’, or, as is more probable, a genuine Teut. word … p170, Kelle] … May be akin to another cille: vessel for note with fire, a pan; a lamp [OHG kella]

cymbal – cimbal, cimbala, cymbala m. – ‘cymbalʼ [from Latin cymbalum, from Greek kumbalon, from kumbē ‘cup’]

cypress – cypresse f. – cypress [late Latin cypressus, from Greek kuparissos

D

date – datārum m. – date [from medieval Latin data, feminine past participle of dare ‘giv’; from the Latin way of dating letters, data (epistola)‘(letter) given or betaken’, to put an enker time or sted] … OE tælmearc ‘number-mark’ was the anglo word for date. Today’s date is likely a blend of data, datarum with English day + t(h) by misreading/mishearing data as a twisting of day and thus the ā lude: And this to have effect for the space of eight dayis following the dait heirof … 1559

deacon – diacon m. – deacon [thru church Latin from Greek diakonos ‘servant’ (in church Greek ‘Christen minister’)] … and aeghwilc diacon arede twa passione fore his sawle, … Oswulf's Charters, c805

dean – decan m. – a dean; one who has charj of ten monks [from late Latin decanus ‘chief of a group of ten’, from decem ‘ten’ ] … Ðæs gēres forþfērde Æfic se æðela decanus on Eofesham – in this year (A. D. 1037) died Æfic the noble dean at Evesham … Chr. 1037; Th. 294, 36, col. 2

December – December m.  – December [Latin dĕcem ‘ten’ + ber likely from Pers. bār ‘time, space’: the tenth month of the Romans, beginning with March, and as we begin with January, it is our twelfth month] … Mónaþ Decembris, ǽrra iúla [geóla] – the month of December, the former yule, Menol. Fox 437; Men. 220; 

decline – declīnian – to decline [Latin declinare ‘bend down, turn aside,’ from de- ‘down’ + clinare ‘to bend’]
> declīnung – declension
> declīnigendlīc – declinable

delete – dilegian, dilgian, dielgian – to delete, destroy, abolish, blot out, erase [Teutonish, Orm. dillghenn: O. Sax. far-diligón: Frs. dylgjen: OFrs. diligia: Du. delgen: Ger. tilgen: MHGer. tíligen, tilgen: OHGer. tiligón; ¿mayhap from Latin delere ‘blot out, efface’?] Kluge calls it “remarkable” that the word was borrow'd from Latin as it does not fit the pattern of fonetic change … p363, tilgen

devil – dēofol mn. gs. dēofles, nap. dēoflu, dēofol, – a ‘devilʼ, demon, false god, the devil, diabolical person [L. diabolus, from Greek diabolos ‘accuser, slanderer’; (noted in the Septuagint to overset Hebrew śāṭān ‘Satan’), from diaballein ‘to slander’, from dia ‘across’ + ballein ‘to throw’]

dictate – see dihtan below under dight
dictator – tictator m. – dictator [L. dictat- ‘dictated’, from the verb dictare] LOE? … and hié mid ðæm tictatore micelne sige hæfdon

dight – diht n. – dight, setting in order, direction, order, command [Teutonish, likely rooted Latin dictum, from dictat- ‘dictated’, from the verb dictare] … an oddity is tictator which is eathseen from Latin … but that raises the frain as to why the others are diht- and the eathseen borrowing is tict-… 
> dihtan, dihtian, dihtnian – to dight, arrange, dispose, appoint, direct, dictate, impose; compose, write
> dihtere, dihtnere m. – dighter, informant, expositor; manager, steward; one who dictates, dictator
> dihtnung, dihtung f. – dighting, ordering, disposition
> gedight n. – compostion
> gedihtan – to put in order, dispose, compose, arrange, conspire; order, direct, appoint
> gedihtnian – to dispose, order, arrange
> gedihtnung – a dispensation, disposing

dinar, dinarius – dyneras, digneras, dīnor m. – a piece of money [Latin denarius, literally ‘containing ten’]; liken Spanish dinero

diphthong – diptongon, dyptongus – diphthong [from late Latin, from Greek diphthongos, from di- ‘twice’ + phthongos ‘voice, sound.’] … Dyptongus is twýfeald swég oððe twýfeald stæfgefég | Diptongon, ðæt ys twýfeald stæfgefég … Spelt dipthong in Ben Jonson, Eng. Grammar, and in Sherwood’s Index to Cotgrave, which also gives the OF dipthongue.

dirge – dirige – dirge [from Latin dirige! (imperativ) ‘direct!’ of dirigere ‘to direct’ whence English direct; it is the first word of an antiphon (Psalm 5:8) noted in the Latin Offis for the Dead] … Dirige for forþférdum.

dish, disc, discus – disc m. – ‘dish’, plate, bowl [Teutonish, Plat. disch, m. table: O. Sax. disk, disc, m. a table: Dut. disch, m. a dining-table: Ger. MHGer. tisch, m. a table: OHGer. tisc, m. discus, mensa, fercŭlum: Dan. disk, m. f. a table, dish: Swed. disk, m. a counter: Icel. diskr, m. a plate: Lat. discus: Greek. δίσκos (diskos) ‘a round plate, quoit, dish’]
> discberend m. – dish-bearer, seneschal

disciple – discipul m., discipula f. – ‘disciple’, scholar [from Latin discipulus ‘learner’, from discere ‘learn’ … whence also disciplin; from the same root which givs docere ‘to teach’ … whence also docent, docile, doctor, doctrin, document.] … spelling with -le sway'd by Old French deciple.
> discipula – fem disciple
> discipulhad – discipulhood, discipulship

dolphin – delfin – dolphin [from Latin delphinus, from Greek delphin] … mayhap the spelling of dolphin was sway'd somewhat by Old French dauphin

dom – domne mf. – lord, nun, abbess [likely from or sway'd by Latin dominus ‘masterʼ … whence dominate, dominion, asf; liken Spanish don; however, keep in mind that the OE dōm also meant ‘might, power, dominion, majesty, glory, magnificence, honor, praise, dignity, authority;  Latin potentia, potestas, majestas, glōria, splendor, honor, laus, dignĭtas, auctōrĭtas’; while dominus and dōm seemingly do not share an IE root, they share meanings and sound and were likely muddl'd.]

drācentse, -cente, -conze f. – dragon-wort, [L. dracontea, from Greek]

drake – draca m. – drake, dragon, sea-monster, serpent; the devil: standard representing a dragon or serpent [Latin draca, from Greek drakōn ‘serpent’] … same root as dragon

dromond – dulmunus m. – warship, dromond [mayhap from the Icel. drómundr, likely from late Greek dromōn ‘light vessel’, from Greek dromos ‘running’]

duple, double – dyple – double [from Latin duplus ‘twice full’, from duo ‘two’]



Onhenge A 
Old English words [A thru D] of Teutonish/Teutonish stock that hav share'd roots with the Latin word or near meanings and look much like a Latin word.

ambeht, ambiht, ambyht – I. n. office, service: commission, command, message. II. m. attendant, messenger, officer. [Teutonish, O. Sax. ambahteo, m: OHGer. ampaht, m : Goth. andbahts, m: O. Nrs. ambátt. f. ancilla: Lat. ambactus, m. a vassal, a dependant upon a lord.] … mayhap a share'd Keltish root.
> ambihtan (embe-) – to minister, serve, NG. 
> ambihtere (embe-) m. – servant, 
> ambihthera – obedient servant
> ambihthus n. – workshop, ‘officinaʼ, offis
> ambihtmann m. – manservant.
> ambihtmecg m. – servant.
> ambihtnes, -sumnes (emb-) f. – service, NG.
> ambihtscealc m. – functionary, retainer.
> ambihtsecg sm. – minister, #Gen# 582.
> ambihtsmiþ m. – court smith or carpenter
> ambihtþegn (omb-) m. – attendant, servant.

ang-, a forefast (prefix), as in ang-breóst, ang-mód, ang-módnes, ang-sum, asf.  – from angenarrow, vexed’, from the same Teut. root comes anger and German Angst ‘fear, anxiety’; liken Latin angere ‘to choke’
angnes, -ness, angnis, -niss, angnys, -nyss, e; f. [ange angustus, anxius; -nes] – anxiety, distress, sorrow, trouble, anguish, narrowness
angsum, ancsum; adj. – narrow, strait, troublesome, hard, difficult 
angsume troubled, in difficulties, anxious … Þonne þé ealra angsumest byþ on þínum móde geþenc þú mín – Then (when) you are most anxius (troubl'd) in thine mind, think to me. (ealra + most or -est means ‘greatest, maximumʼ)
angsumlíctroublesome, anxious
angsumian, ge-angsumian, -ancsumian, -anxsumian; p. ode; pp. od  – to vex, make anxious or uneasy
anxsumnes, -ness, e; f.  – anxiety

angel – I. m. – ‘angleʼ, hook, fish-hook [Plat. Dut. Ger. MHGer. angel, m: OHGer. angul, m: O. Nrs. öngull, m., from the IE root seems to be •ak, *ank ‘bend, curv’, whence anchor.] …  II. m. = engel (angel, see abuv in Latinates) 
> angnere (on-) m. corner of the eye (liken Latin angulus ‘corner’

beard m.beard Lest one thinks this is from Latin barba, Kluge writes: The pre-Teut. form of Goth. *barda, f., was, in accordance with the permutation of consonants, bhardha—which is also presumed by OSlov. brada (with the usual loss of aspiration and metathesis of the r), and Lat. barba (with b for dh when next to rv…; the initial b is from bh…;… Kluge, p21, Bart

cealc m. plaster, cement, CHALK [Dut. kalk, f; Kil. kalck: Ger. kalk, kalch, m: MHGer. kalc, m: OHGer. calc, chalch: Dan. kalk, m. f: Swed. Norw. kalk, m: Icel. kalk, n: Lat. calx, m. and f: Grk.  m. and f: Wel. Corn. calch, m: Ir. calc: Gael. cailc, f: Manx kelk, m.

eax, ex, æx, e; f. – axis, axle-tree  [Dut. as, f: Ger. achse, axe, f; MHGer. ahse, f: OHGer. ahsa. f; Dan. axe. m. f; Swed. axel, m; Icel. axull, öxull, m; öxul-tré, n: Lat. axis, m: Grk. αξων, m: Lith. aszis, f: Sansk. aksha the axle of a wheel, a wheel, car.], likely from ur-IE *akso-
> eaxel, eaxl, exl, e; f: eaxle – shoulder, axle [Teutonish, O. Sax. ahsla, f: O. Frs. axle, axele, f: Ger. achsel, f: MHGer. ahsel, f: OHGer. ahsala, f: Goth. amsa, m: Dan. axel, m. f: Swed. axel, m: Icel. öxl, f: Lat. axilla, f.], littling of eax.

calu, caluwcallow, bald, bare [Teutonish, likely from an IE root *skar ‘shear’ (Plat, kaal: Frs. keal: Dut. kaal: Kil. kael: Ger. kahl: MHGer. kal: OHGer. chalo, chalaw: Ir. Gael. calbh: O. Slav. golu.) shared by Latin calvus ‘bald’]

campcontest, war, battle, struggle  [O. Frs. kamp, komp, m: Dut. kamp, m. a battle: Ger. MHGer. kampf, m. a fight: OHGer. champh, m: Dan. kamp, m. f: Swed. kamp, m: Norw. Icel. kapp, n: Wel. camp, f.] • Kluge (p. 163) writes: … there is no probability in the assumption that OTeut *kampa- is derived from Lat. campus, thus connecting it with Campus Martius.
> cempachampion, solider, warrior, kemp [O. Frs. campa, cempa: O. L. Ger. kempio : OHGer. chemph(i)o : Icel. kappi.] • Kluge, p. 163: AS cempa, and OIc kappe signify 'warrior, hero'; this term, denoting the agent, passed into Rom. (Fr. champion, whence also E. champion).

canne f. – can [Teutonish, Dut. kan, f: Ger., MHGer. kanne, f: OHGer. channa, f: Dan. kande, m. f: Swed. Icel. kanna, f.] … Not from Latin! See Kluge, p164.

cræt, crat n. nap. cratu, – cart, waggon, chariot, crate [from urTeutonic *kratjô, *krattijô (“basket”), from IE *gred-, *gre(n)t- (“plaiting, wicker, basket, cradle”), (Dut. krat, n: Ger. krätze, kretze, m. f: MHGer. kretze, m. f: OHGer. cratto, m: Icel. kartr, m: Wel. cart: Ir. cairt: Gael, cairt, cartach, f.) root shared by Latin cratis ‘wickerwork, lattice, kitchen-rack’] … Kluge writes: “OHG. chratto and MidHG. kratte suggest AS. cradol, E. cradle, and also Du. krat, AS. cræt, E. cart …, E. crate.” …  Kluge, p192, Krätze. However he writes that these are not linkt to Greek καρταλλος (kartallos) ‘basket’. He says nothing about Latin cratis.
> crætwæn m. – chariot (crate-wain … a wain [vehicle] shape'd like a crate])
> cræthors n. – cart-horse

cýpa, cépa, ceáp [cheap] m.I. a factor, merchant, trader, vendor; negotiator, mercator II. what a merchant has his goods in; a basket [Scot. couper, coper one who buys and sells: OFrs. kapere, m. a purchaser; Dut. kooper, m: Ger. käufer, m: M. H. Ger. koufer, m; O. H. Ger. koufári, m: Dan. kjöber: Swed. köpare, m: Lat. caupo a merchant: Grk.   one who sells provisions: Lith. kupczus mercator.]  … NOT from Latin caupo but shares an IE root … It is most closely allied to Lat. caupo, ‘retail dealer, innkeeper’ … Kluge, p174, kaufen.
> cýpan, cípan – to sell; vend [Scot. coup to buy and sell: Plat. kopen, köpen to buy: OSax. kópón to bargain: Frs. keapjen: OFrs. kapia to buy: Dut. koopen to buy: Ger. kaufen: MHGer. koufen: OHGer. koufén, koufón mercari: Goth. kaupon to bargain: Dan. kjöbe to buy: Swed. köpa to buy; Icel. kaupa, p. keypti to bargain.] 

Onhenge B 
References

Arthur’s English—Old Norse
Bosworth-Toller’s Old English 
Clarkʼs Concise Anglo-Saxon
Kluge’s Etymological Dict. of German
Skeat’s Etymological Dict. of English
Wedgwood’s Dict. of English Etymology, Vol 1 A-D
Zoëga’s Concise Old Icelandic



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