Monday, November 25, 2013

Old English Latinates – Part Two

Warning: Simplified and/or fonetic spelling ahed!

Owing to the length of the list, it is split into two. This is Part Two E thru Z. Part One is here.

This is a qwick list of Old English (OE) words borrow'd from Latin (mostly church Latin from Greek) and Greek (most thru church Latin) words. Some of these are erly Germanish/Teutonish meaning that they were borrow'd well before the Saxons came to what is now England and are gemean (common) to the G/T tungs. Even the words that are "up in the air" as to whether they truly came from Latin or not, are here. There is a sunder deal below for a few words that hav the G/T root shared with Latin.

Things to keep in mind. Nearly every shire said words otherly, thus there was no ONE way to say the words:

  • the staf c was both k and, in Late West Saxon (LWS) speech, ch … thus circ = kirk and church … portic could be portik (portico) or portich (porch)
  • the  sc could be sk or LWS sh
  • the g () could be hard like get (OE etan) or soft (much like todayʼs y in year (OE ear) 
  • The vowels are a mess …
  • ā often became todayʼs ō but sometimes ei or ī 
  • æ is like the a in ash or ā but NOT ē (see)… however the long ǣ often became todayʼs ea … rǣswung, rēsung, rēsong ‘reasoning’
  • eo is itʼs own mess … e, ee, eu, o, u … 
  • the y is like the German ü or oo; the long ȳ often became todayʼs long ī but not always

Todayʼs English notes another way of spelling than does OE. Shortly after the Norman-French Takeover, English practically stoppt being a written tung for nearly 100 years. Sore few wrote anything in English. When written English did once again come out, it took on many of the spelling ways (orthography) of French. Not only did English take some of the French ways of spelling but often took the French spelling of the word itself! Later, in the 1500s and 1600s when Latin rule'd the roost so to speak, many words were edspelt (respelt) to match up the the Latin root (some mistakenly so, such as putting the s into iland for island and the c in sithe for scythe). Thus OE sicor (ME siker, sikur), from Latin securus, was edspelt secure. Same word, same meanings.

Best way to note this list is to note your browserʼs find and look for the word and do it more than once.

Part Two E thru Z


English (if one) – OE – meaning [Latin/Greek root] … marks

-ess – -isse – -ess [This afterfast, Lat. -issa, which in later English became the gemean afterfast -ess to mark the distaff, is found before the Norman-French Takeover in the word abbudisse ‘abbess’ (liken -estre)]

earfe f, – vetch, tare [L. ervum]

eclipse – exlypsis – eclipse [thru Latin, from Greek ekleipsis, from ekleipein ‘fail to be seen, be eclipsed’, from ek ‘out’ + leipein ‘to leave’] … þonne þ exlypsis ware, þ is ðæs sunnan asprungnis

elecampane – eolone f. – elecampane, horseheal [from medieval Latin enula hĕlĕnium (from Greek helenion ‘elecampane’) + campana likely meaning ‘of the fields’ (from campus ‘field’)] … Elene, Helen

elehtre, electre f. – lupine [L. electrum, from Greek ēlektron ‘amber, electrum’] … same word from which William Gilbert made the word electric

elephant – elp, elpend, elpent m. – elephant [from Latin elephantem, Greek elephas, elephant- ‘ivory, elephant’] … Today’s spelling likely from Latin
> elpendban – ivory (elephant bone)
> elpendtoþ – ivory (elephant tooth)

elm – elm m. – elm, elm-tree  [¿Lating ulmus?, more likely Teutonish, akin to German dialect Ilm, and Swedish and Norwegian alm, Danish elm, Old Norse almr, Old High German elme from the ur-Teut. *elmaz, mayhap from the IE root *el-, *ol ‘red, brown’ and thus a cognate with Latin ulmus, Old Irish lem. However, Kluge holds that German Ulme is from the Latin word.
> ulmtrēow n. – elm tree 

empire – empire – empire, dominion [from Latin imperium ‘command’, from imperare ‘to command’, from in- ‘toward’ + parare ‘prepare’] … LOE?
> empress – empirce f. – empress [fem of emperor (not found but can be assum'd in LOE)] … LOE (found in AS Chron. 1140)

epistle – pistol m. – epistle, letter [Church Latin epistola, from Greek epistolē, from epistellein ‘send news’, from epi ‘upon, in addition’ + stellein ‘send’ ] … spelling later shifted to match French/Latin.

esol m., æsul, esol, esul f. – ass [Teutonish, O. Sax. esil, m: Dut. ezel, m; Ger. MHGer. esel, m: OHGer. esil, m: Goth. asilus, m: Slav, osilu. L. asellus] … IE root? see ass abuv

exodus – exodus m. – exodus, a going out [from Greek exodos, from ex- ‘out of’ + hodos ‘way’ (akin to Russian ходите)]

exorcist – exorcista m. – exorcist, a caster out of ghosts [church Latin exorcizare, from church Greek exorkismos, from exorkizein, from ex- ‘out’ + horkos ‘oath’ The word first meant ‘conjure up or command an evil spirit’]


false – fals I. adj. – false II. n. – falsehood, fraud, counterfeit. [Teutonish, OFrs. falsk, falsch: Ger. falsch, m. n: MHGer. valsch, m: Icel. fals, n; likely from Latin falsum ‘fraud’, neuter past participle of fallere ‘deceive’ or could be a slight (genitiv) twisting of a Teut word (ON fall ‘sin’, OE feall ‘fall, trap’, fælniss ‘offense’, fællan ‘offend’) … OE fallan, feallan (Eng fall) and Latin fallere share an IE root.]
> ¿akin? fælsian – to expiate, condition, cleanse, purify

fan – fan, fann f. – winnowing fan [Teutonish, mayhap from Latin vannus ‘winnowing fan’ but could eathly be from or akin to OE fana, fæna] … Kluge writes (p384, Wanne): There exists, however, a genuine Teut. stem from which Wanne can be derived. Goth. winþjan, and the equiv. E. winnow (from AS. windwian) point to a Teut. root winþ, 'to winnow' (Lat. ventilare) and hence OHG. wanna might stand for *wanþma. In that case the primit. kinship with Lat. vannus … would be conceivable.
> fannian – to winnow, fan

fem – femne, fæmne f. – female, woman, damsel, maid [Teutonish, OSax. fémea, féhmia, f: Frs. fæm, f: OFrs. famne, fomne, femne, fovne, fone, f: Icel. feima, f; likely from Latin femina ‘woman’ or an IE root meaning to suckle]

February – Februarius m. – February, Sol-mōnaþ [from Latin februarius, from februa, the name of a cleansing feast held in this month, from februus ‘cleansing’] Sīgeþ Februarius ‘February nears’ … Menol. Fox 35; Men. 18.  

fenester, fenestra, fenestella – fenester n? m? – window  [erly Teutonish (Ger. Fenster), from Latin fenestra ‘window’]

fennel – finul, finugl m., finu(g)le – ‘fennelʼ [from Latin faeniculum, littling of faenum ‘hay’]

ferule – ferele f. – rod [from Latin ferula ‘giant fennel, rod’, whence also ferula]

fever – fēfer mn. – fever [Teutonish, Ger. fieber, n: MHGer. vieber, n: OHGer. fiebar, n: Dan. feber, m. f: Swed. feber, m: ¿from? or akin to L. febris ‘a trembling, shaking, shivering’, IE root unknown … from Teutonish?] … other Anglo rooted words for fever were fær, hriþ. Liken also OE befian ‘shake, tremble, be moovd’
> feferian – to hav a fever, be feverish
> febrig – feverish [this word is, without nay, from Latin febris]

feverfew, febrefuge – feferfuge f. – feverfew, a herb for fever and headakes [from Latin febrifuga, from febris ‘fever’ + fugare ‘drive away’ … akin to fugere ‘flee’ whence fugitiv]

fiddle – fiþele f. – fiddle [Teutonish, Plat. fidel, f; Dut. vedel, veel, f: Ger. fiedel, fidel, f: MHGer. videle, videl, f: OHGer. fidula, f: Dan. fiddel, m. f: Icel. fiþla, f: unknown upspring but likely akin to M. Lat. fidula, vidula: Lat. fĭdes, f. a string, guitar.]

fīfele f. – buckle [L. fibula?]

fig – fīc m. – fig, fig-tree: (fig-disease), venereal ulcer, hemorrhoids [from Latin ficus ] … spelling sway'd by Old French figue

flail – fligel m? n? – ‘flail’ [Teutonish, mayhap rooted on Latin flagellum ‘whip’, littling of flagrum ‘scourge’  or the Teut. root flah ‘to flay’ (OIc. flā ‘to flay’)]

flask – flasce, flaxe f. – ‘flask’, bottle [Teutonish,  Plat. flaske, f: Dut. flesch, f: Ger. flasche, f: MHGer. vlasche, vlesche, f: OHGer. flasca, f: Dan. flaske, m. f: Swed. flaska, f; Icel. flaska, f; M. Lat. flasca, fiasco] … OED calls it from late Latin flasco, flascon-, of unknown rise while wikt calls it from ur-Teut. from *flaskǭ ‘braid-covered bottle, wicker-enclosed jug’. ¿From Latin? Looks more like Latin borrow'd from G/T.

fleam – flýtme f. – fleam (blood-letting instrument, lancet) [Teutonish, Du. vlijm, MHG. fliedeme, Ger. fliete likely from late Latin phlebotomum or phlebotomia, from Greek, from phleps, phleb- ‘vein’ + -tomia ‘cutting’ ] … whence also phlebotomy.  

foca m. – a cake baked on the harth, OE hylsten [mayhap from Latin focus ‘harth’] … whence also today’s focus. However, the ur-Teut. root for fire is *fu (whence Ger. Feuer, Eng. fire) and thus it could also be from that. The OE word for focus was fustra

font, fount, fountain – fant, font m. – font, fount, fountain, spring [from Latin fons, font- ‘a spring’]
> fant / font-fæt n. – a font-vat, the font for baptism
> fant / font-wæter – springwater, fountain, font, fount 

fork – forca, force f. – fork [likely Latin furca ‘pitchfork, forked stick’, however, furca is of unknown upspring]

form – formelle f. – bench [L. formella, from Latin forma ‘a mold or form’ … whence also inform]

fosse – fossere m. – spade [from Latin ‘fossorium’, from fodere ‘to dig’]

full (verb) – fullian – to full or make white, baptize [mayhap from medieval, low Latin fullare, rooted on Latin fullo ‘fuller’, of unknown upspring (could well be Teut.) … liken Latin infula ‘to cleanse clothes’, fulgare ‘to shine’, and Greek phalos ‘white’; however, B-T writes that it is: A word of doubtful origin. See also that fullian (Teut. root) means to fulfill, make perfect. This would answer for baptize and make white as whose who are baptiz'd, being fulfill'd with God, are often wearing white robes.]
> fuller – fullere m. – fuller 


gabote f. – side-dish [L. gabata]

gem – gimm (y) m. (occl. nap. gimme) – ‘gemʼ, jewel, dearworth stone; (skaldic) sun, star. [Latin gemma ‘bud, jewel’; of ungewiss upspring]

giant – gīgant m. – giant [L. gigantem, from Greek gigas, gigant-] … here the other g () in gīgant (īant) is like y … thus we say 'gī(y)ant; liken OE ent, eoten, eten and ONrs jötunn [jotun]

gloria, glory – gloria m. – gloria [from Latin gloria ‘glory’] … Se gloria þæs forman sealmes | Todǣled on twēgen glorian

gloss – glesan – to gloss [L. glossa, from Greek glōssa ‘word needing explanation, language, tung’]
> glesing – glossing

grade – grād m., grāde f. – step, grade, degree, rank [from Latin gradus ‘step’ … whence also graduate.]

gradual – graþul – gradual, antiphon [from medieval Latin gradualis, from Latin gradus ‘step’. The first witt of the adjectiv was ‘arrangd in degrees’; the noun refers to the altar steps in a church, from which the antiphons were sung.] … [Alleluia] for graþulum byþ gesungen

graph – græf n? – style, stylus for writing [likely from L. graphium, from Greek graphion ‘stylus, writing implement’ … however, grafan, græfan means to grave, ingrave which is Teut. … they share an IE root (as does grammar) … mayhap a blend of the two] … whence also graft 

grammar – grammatic, grammatisc – grammatical, of grammar [Teutonish, from Latin grammaticus, from Greek grammatikē (tekhnē)‘(art) of letters’ from gramma, grammat- ‘letter of the alphabet, thing written’] … also shares an IE root with English grave He leornode grammatican cræft 
> grammaticere m. –  grammarian — Grammaticeras and rim-cræftige þegnas 


hallelujah, alleluia – alleluia – hallelujah, alleluia [from church Latin alleluia, from Greek allēlouia (in the Septuagint), from Hebrew hallĕlūyāh ‘praise ye the Lord’]

heretic, heretical – eretic – heretical [Latin from Greek hairetikos ‘able to choose’ (in church Greek, ‘heretical’), from haireisthai ‘choose’] … Anglo word for heretic, schismatic was sliten

history – istoria – [thru Latin, from Greek historia ‘finding out, narrativ, history’, from histōr ‘learned, wise’, from an IE root share'd by wit] … Istoriam Indéa ríces

hulk – hulc m. – hulk, a fast ship; hut [Teutonish, murky upspring, the OED puts it as likely of Mediterranean rise and akin to Greek holkas ‘cargo ship’; Skeat only says that OE hulc is for ME hulke ‘hovel’, he otherwise puts hulk as from Low Latin hulka; from Greek. However, Kluge says that MidLat. holcas is scarcely derived from όλκασ. It is true that some etymologists also ascribe other Teut. naval terms to a Gr. origin. … Kluge, p151, Holk. | I think Kluge is right. The Low Latin hulka is late and likely borrow'd from Teut. Among the Teut., it first shows up in OE so it is a rune as to how a word would hav jumpt from Greek to OE, thus the OED has it as akin to but not straight from holkas.] see also OE holc ‘hollow, cavity’

hymele f. – hop plant [L. humulus]

hymn – ymen m. – hymn, sacred song [from Latin hymnus, from Greek humnos ‘ode or song in praise of a god or hero’, noted in the Septuagint to set sundry Hebrew words, and hence in the New Testament and other Christen writings.]

hyacinth, jacinth – iacinctus, iacintus m. – jacinth [from medieval Latin iacintus, from of Latin hyacinthus, for any of many plants linkt with the bloom in the myth of Hyacinthus]


idol – īdol n. – idol [Latin idolum ‘image, form’ (noted in church Latin in the witt ‘idol’), from Greek eidōlon, from eidos ‘form, shape’]

imp – impa m., impe f. – graft, shoot, scion, imp [Teutonish, mayhap from Low Lat. impotus ‘a graft’; Gr. ἔμφυτος ‘engrafted’, or straightway rooted on Greek emphuein ‘to implant’ … or ur-Teut *impōną, *impitōną (“to graft”) ( whence OHG impfōn). Akin to Danish ympe, German Impf, Swedish ymp. Kluge writes: … only OHG. impitôn can be explained as directly borrowed from a Lat. horticultural term … Kluge, p157, impfen]
> impian – to 'imp', implant, graft
> geimpian – busy oneself with, introduce, mingle, engraft, insert

inch – ynce m. – inch [L. uncia ‘twelfth part,’ from unus ‘one’ (likely denoting a unit) … whence also ounce]

insignia, seal, signet – insigle, insegel, insegl, insaegel, insaegl, inseil n. – seal, signet, insignia [Teutonish, Frs. in-sigel, -sigil ‘a seal’, Icel. inn-sigli ‘a seal, a seal-ring’; also the wax affixt to a deed; OHGer. insigili, sigillum, signaculum, lunula, annulus, moneta; Ger. insiegel … mayhap from Latin sigillum ‘small picture’, littling of signum ‘a sign’, however Kluge states: nor is it known how OHG. insigili is related to Lat. sigillum … Kluge, p335, Siegel]
> inseglian (æ) – to seal 
> inseglung f. – sealing, seal
> beinsiglian – to seal up


January – Januarius, Ianuarius; m. – January [from Latin Januarius (mensis) ‘(month) of Janus’, named after the god Janus who oversaw doors and beginnings] — Forma mónaþ folc mycel Ianuarius héton the Romans called the first month January …  Menol. Fox 19; Men. l0. | Januarius and October habbaþ twā rihtinga

July – Julius – July [from Latin Julius (mensis)‘(month) of July’, nam'd after Julius Caesar] … Aprilis and Julius habbaþ āne rihtinge

June – Junius – June [from Latin Junius (mensis) ‘(month) of June’, from Junonius ‘sacred to Juno’, wife to Jupiter, qween of the hevvens] …  Junius āna hæfþ syx rihtinga


kaiser – Cāsere (Cāser) m. – Cæsar, emperor [todayʼs spelling from German]
> cāserdom m.  –imperial sway.
> cāserlic – imperial
> cāsern, cāseren f. – empress [ -en fem ending]

keev (keeve), kive – cȳf, cȳfe f. – a keev, kive, vessel, vat, cask, bushel; coop? Oversetting Latin: dolium, modius [Teutonish: O. Sax. cōpa, f. dolium; Dut. kuip, f. a tub; Ger. kufe, f. a vessel; M.H.Ger. kuofe, f. cupa; O.H.Ger. kuofa, f. dolium, tunna; Dan. kippe, kyper, m. f. a dyer's tub; Swed. kyp, m. a dyer's tub; kupa, f. a case, box; Icel. kūpa, f. a bowl, basin, box;  M.Lat. cuppa, f; Lat. cupa, f. a tun; Grk. GREEK a tub, cask; Sansk. kūpa a cistern; kumbha vessel for water] … all ar from the IE root *ku ‘to contain’; a like word is found in all IE tungs; see cup in Part I.

kettle – cetel, cetil, citel m. – kettle, cauldron [Teutonish, likely from Latin catillus, littling of catinus ‘deep container for cooking or serving food’. In Middle English the wordʼs shape was sway'd by Old Norse ketill .]

kiln – cyln, cylen f. – kiln [Teutonish, mayhap from Latin culina ‘kitchen, cooking stove’ … However, Kluge links it to coal … p186, Kohle ] … another OE word meaning kiln is āst (English oast)

kitchen – cycene f. – kitchen [erly Teutonish, akin to Dutch keuken and German Küche, from Mid. Latin cucina, rooted on Latin coquere ‘to cook’

læfel m. – spoon, basin, vessel, bowl, cup [akin to Ger. Löffel; L. labellum; of Löffel, Kluge says: Derived from a Teut. root lap, ‘to drink, lick’, which is assumed by OHG. laffan … p219, Löffel]

lake – lacu f. – a lake, pool, pond [mayhap from Latin lacus ‘basin, pool, lake’ (Skeat says straight from Latin and not thru French), however there is much room to think it may akin to but not from Latin. B-T writes: It might be supposed that lacu was taken from Latin lacus, and the fact that the gender of the Latin is not that of the English word does not disprove the supposition; … And … it may have been to Latin that the English word is due; but there may have been at an earlier time a native word: cf. leccan to water, and O. H. Ger. lacha … Kluge writes: The OHG. word cannot be derived from Lat. lacus, … Kluge, p201, Lache. Liken also Greek lakkos and Gaelic loch (which may hav also sway'd the English word)… all from the same IE root.] 

lamprey – lamprēde f. – lamprey [from medieval Latin lampreda, likely from Latin lambere ‘to lick’ + petra ‘stone’ (for that the lamprey attaches itself to stones by its mouth).]

laurel – laur, lauwer, lawer m. – laurel, bay [from Latin laurus]
> laurbeam
> laurtreow
> laurberige

legion – legie f. – legion [from Latin legion-, from legere ‘choose, levy or gather a body of men’ ]

lentil – lent f. – lentil, lentils, pulse [L. lentem] … whence also lens; not akin to Lent which has a Teut. root.

leo, lion – lēo mf. gdas. lēon – lion, lioness [Latin leo, leon-, from Greek leōn, leont-]

lettuce – lactuc, lactuce, m. -ca f. – lettuce [Latin lactuca, from lac, lact- ‘milk’ (owing to its milky sap)] … spelling sway'd by French
> also: leah-troc, -tric, -trog m. lettuce. [L. lactuca]

lily – lilie f. – lily [from Latin lilium, from Greek leirion .]

line – līne f. – line [Teutonish, the OED calls it from Latin linea (fibra)‘flax (fiber)’, from linum ‘flax’; however Kluge says that it may be “an independent Teut. derivative of līn, ‘linen’, … In that case AS. line, E. line, and OIc. lina (Goth. *leinjô, lit. ‘what is prepared from flax’), are also formed according to the genuinely Teut. principle” … Kluge, p212, Leine]

litany – lētania m. – litany [church Latin litania, from Greek litaneia ‘prayer’, from litē ‘supplication’]

lobster – lopystre f. – lobster [Latin locusta ‘crustacean, locust’] … whence also locust

lufestice f. – lovage (plant), literally love-stick ¿[late Latin levisticum from Latin ligusticum, neuter of ligusticus ‘Ligurian’]?


mæslere m. – a sacrist, sacristan, keeper of a church [unknown, akin to mæsse?; liken O.H.Ger. mesinari, mayhap from Latin mansionarius, ianitor, aedituus (whence Ger. Mesner); from Mid Latin mansio ‘an abiding, sted of abode’; whence also mansion; from Latin mansus, pp. of manere ‘to dwell’.]

magdalatrēow n. – almond-tree [L. amygdala]

magister – see master below

mallow – mealwe f. – mallow [likely from Latin malva … whence mauve, marshmallow; akin to Greek malakhē

mamma – mamme f. – teat, brest [likely from Latin mamma ‘brest’ (Latin pl. mammae)] … same root for mammal (think of it as mamma + al or el) … OE plural: mamman shows that today’s Eng. pl. should be mammen.

mancus – ‘mancus’, thirty silver pence, one-eighth of a pound [mayhap from Latin mancus ‘mutilated, powerless, deficient’; B-T say of arabic upspring]
> bemancian – to maim, mangle (see bemancian in part I) 

mangle, manke, mankit – bemancian – to maim [However, Kluge writes: Teut. root mang, mangw … may be primit. allied to Lat. mancus, ‘mutilated, powerless, deficient’, from which early derivatives were formed in E., AS. gemancian, ‘to mutilate’ …  p226, Mangln] … see also mancus 

manna – manna n. – manna (food) [church Latin, from Greek, from Aramaic mannā, from Hebrew mān]

mantle, mantel – mentel (æ) m. – mantle, cloak [from Latin mantellum ‘cloak’, root unknown]
> mentel-preon – mantel-fin, brooch

marble – marma m. – marble [from Latin marmor, from Greek marmaros ‘shining stone’, akin to marmairein ‘to shine’] … today’s spelling sway'd by French marbre
> marman-stan (marmel-, marm(or)-) m. – marble, piece of marble ['marmstan']
> marmstangedelf n. – quarrying of marble

March – Martius – March [from Latin Martius (mensis) ‘(month) of Mars’] … Martius and November gladiaþ on fīfum

market – market n. – market [Teutonish, from Latin mercatus, from mercari ‘to trade’, from merx, merc- ‘merchandise’, likely from mer- as seen in merere ‘to obtain, get, gain’; so that merx is gain or profit, hence market as a means of getting gain … whence also mercantile, mercenary, mercer, merchant, merchandise] … see mertze below

martyr – martir, martyr(e) m. – martyr  [from Latin ‘martyr’, from Greek martur ‘witness’, from IE root *smar ‘remember’ … whence memory]
> martirlogium m. – martyrology
> martyrdōm m. – martyrdom
> martyrhād m. – martyrdom
> martyrian, -trian – to martyr
> martyrracu f. – martyrology
> martyrung f. – passion (of Christ), martyring

marufle – horehound. [L. marrubium]

mass – mæsse (e) f. – mass, Eucharist, celebration of Eucharist; special mass day, festival of the church. [thought to be from church Latin missa, from Latin miss- ‘dismissed’, from mittere, mayhap from the last words of the servis, Ite, missa est ‘Go, it is the dismissal.’] … Kluge finds the change in vowel from i in missa to æ in mæsse “abnormal” and Skeat calls it “remarkable”. See also mæsler abuv.

massere m. – merchant: moneylender [unknown, liken low Latin massarius, from Latin massa ‘mass’, from Greek maza ‘barley cake’] … whence also mass

master, magister – magister (æ) m. –  leader, chief, master, teacher [from Latin magister ‘master’; the root mag- is the same as in magnus ‘great’ (akin to Greek megas ‘great’) from an IE root of *mag ‘power’ … whence OE mæg, mægen ‘MAIN, might, strength, force, power, vigor, fortitude, efficacy, effort, effectivness, virtue, faculty, ability’
> masterdom – magisterdom, mægsterdom m. – office of a master or teacher

mat, matt – matt, meatt f. – mat, matt [Teutonish, likely from late Latin matta ‘mat made from rushes’, from Phoenician; Skeat thinks it might share the same root wtih map.]

May – Maius – May [so nam'd from being the month of growth, from Latin Maius (mensis) ‘(month) of the growth goddess Maia’; oddly enuff, Skeat say it shares the IE root *magh with the English verb may] … Maius hæfþ þrȳ

mechanical, mechanic, mechanish – mechanisc – mechanical [L. from Greek mēkhanikos, from mēkhanē, from mēkhos ‘contrivance’ … also the root of masheen (machine)]

med- – a forefast that mostly shows mediocrity, but often comes to hav a distinct negativ value; see, fb, medtrum, medwīs. [midde] … not to be befuddel'd with mēd ‘meed, reward’
> medrīce – of low rank
> medsēlþ (æ) f. – ill-fortune
> medspēdig – poor
> medstrang – of middle rank
> medtrum – weak, infirm, sickly, ill; of lower rank
> medwīs – dull, stupid, foolish

medume, medeme, meodume; adj. – I. middling, moderate, common, average, mean  II. medium, taking the middle or mean spot as regards (a) size, amount, asf. [mayhap from Latin medium, neuter of medius ‘middle’  or more likely rooted on the Teut. stem mēd, see mete]
> medemian (eo) – moderate
> medemlic – moderate, mediocre
> medemlicnes f. – mediocrity 

-ment – -ment – -ment [This afterfast, Lat. -mentum, which in today’s English is the afterfast -ment to nouns from verbs and adjectivs, is found in the word pihment ‘pigment’ LOE?]

mertze, myrtse f. – merchandise, trading fees [¿mayhap from Latin merx (a raw shape of merci-) ‘merchandise’, see market abuv] Liken OHGer. nicrzi  from merx?

mess – mese (ēo, ī, ý) f. – table at which a meal is taken; what is placed on a table. [¿mayhap from Latin mensa ‘table’ ?], whence mess; liken OHG maz ‘food’
>mess – mesan – to feed, eat, to mess; liken to metian – to feed, supply with food, and Ger. messen (not a Latinate) – to measure, measure out 
>mes-hrægel – napkin (mess-cloth) See also OE mos ‘food, nourishment’

mēter n. – meter (poetic verse) [from Latin metrum, from Greek metron ‘measure’ … this shares the same IE root with OE mēt ‘measure, mete’  … metan ‘to measure, mete’ … metod ‘fate, meted time’ … metrāp ‘mete-rope, measure rope’metgian, metegian, metian ‘meditate, regulate, assign, mete out’] … 
> mētercræft m. art of versifying

mile – mīl f. – mile [rooted on Latin mil(l)ia, plural of mille ‘thousand’mille passus – a thousand strides … whence also million, millennium, millenary, millipede, asf]

militia, military – milite – soldiers [from Latin miles, milit- ‘soldier’]
> military – militisc – military [from Latin miles, milit- ‘soldier’]

mill – myle, mylen mf. – mill [Teutonish,  said to be rooted on late Latin molinum, from Latin mola ‘grindstone, mill’, from molere ‘to grind’, from an IE root of *mal, akin to English meal (OE mæl) and German mahlen ‘to mill, grind’. The Anglo word for a mill is cwyrn, cweorn ‘quern’] … However, liken OE myl ‘dust’ (Eng. mull?) and Icel. mylja ‘to crush to pieces, grind’, Icel. mylna ‘mill’ (Kluge says from Eng.). Sore murky!

mime – mīma m. – mime [likely from Latin mimus, from Greek mimos; whence also mimic]

memory – mimor, gemimor – memory, existing in memory or mind, known [likely from Latin memor ‘mindful, remembering’ with today’s word sway'd by OF memorie]
> mimorian, mymerian – keep in memory, memorize, remember

mint – minte f. – mint [from Latin menta or straight from Greek minthē ]

mix – miscian – to mix, apportion [mayhap from Latin mixtus, or miscere ‘to mix’ but Skeat calls it English] … liken Ger. mischen which Kluge that it could be Teut. or borrow'd; today’s spelling sway'd by OF mixte.

mode – mydd n. – bushel [from Latin modius, from modus ‘measure’, whence also module, modal, mode; from an IE root share'd by OE mete; liken to mood]
> mydrece, myderce f. – chest, money-box, module
> tow-mydrece/myderce f. – work-box, box for keeping things for spinning (tow)

monastery – mynster n. – monastery, nunnery [L. monasterium, from church Greek monastērion, from monazein ‘liv alone,’ from monos ‘alone’] … spelling shifted in ME.

money – mynet n. – coin, money,  [from Latin moneta ‘mint, money’, from a title of the goddess Juno, in whose temple in Rome money was minted] … whence money … today’s sway'd by OF moneie
> mynetcypa m. – money-changer
> mynetere m. – ‘minterʼ, coiner; money-changer, Mt; Æ. 
> mynetian – to coin
> mynetīsen n. – coinage
> mynetslege m. – minting, coinage
> mynetsmiþþe f. –  mint (money-smith)

monger – mangere m. – monger [‘to traffic’ of Teutonic whelm, mayhap rooted on Latin mango ‘dealer’; however Skeat writes: The relationship to the Lat. mango, a dealer in slaves, is not clear; but the E. word does not appear to have been borrowed from it. … Skeat, p375, monger]
> mangung f. – trade, traffic, business, commerce, dealing; also merchandise 
> mangung-hus – a house for traffic, business, commerce

moraþ, mōrid n.sweet seeth'd wine with herbs. [L. moratum] see mulberry below

mortar – mortere m. – mortar [from Latin mortarium (to which the English spelling was later chanj'd to match)] LOE?

mount – munt m. – mount, mountain, hill, mound [likely from Latin mons, mont- ‘mountain’] … However, could be a slight twisting of OE mund ‘mound, protection, guardianship, skelter, hand’

mule – mūl m. – mule [Teutonish, from Latin mulus, mula]

mulberry – mōr-berige – a mulberry [Teutonish: Dutch moerbezie and German Maulbeere, likely from Latin morum + berry; akin to Greek μωρον, μορον; IE root unk.] see also moraþ abuv
> mūr-beam – mulberry tree

munuc m. – monk (also of women) [L. monachus, from Greek monakhos ‘solitary’, from monos ‘alone’]

mure – mūr m. – wall [from Latin murus ‘wall’]? LOE? or IE root? … also root of mural. [liken Ger. Mauer]

mussel, muscle – muscelle, muscle, muxle, musle f. – shell-fish, mussel; muscle [Teutonish, Middle Low German mussel, Middle Dutch mosscele; mayhap from late Latin muscula, from Latin musculus ‘muscle’, littling of mus ‘mouse’ (some muscles being thought to be mouselike in shape) … HOWEVER … it could all be rooted on OE mus ‘mouse, muscle’ of Teutonish upspring; akin to Dutch muis and German Maus, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin and Greek mus .

must – must m. – ‘mustʼ, new wine [from Latin mustum, neuter (used as a noun) of mustus ‘new’ akin to moist] … whence mustard and musty… this is NOT the modal verb must

mutate – bemūtian / bimūtian – to change, exchange for [likely from Latin mutare ‘to change’]
> mutian – to change, exchange … whence English molt, Ger. Mause, Mauser
> mutual – mutung f. – a loan, borrowing [likely rooted on Latin mutuus ‘mutual, borrowed’]

myltestre (e, i) f.  – prostitute [mayhap from Latin meretrix ‘courtesan’, from merere ‘gain, deserv’, whence also merit
> myltestrehūs n. brothel

myrrh – myrre, murre f. – myrrh [Teutonish, from Latin, from Greek murra, likely Semitic; liken to Arabic murr ‘bitter’]
myrrh – myrra, murra f. – myrrh, cicely [from Latin myrris, from Greek murris]

mysci – flies [L. musca … whence also mosquito]


nard – nard m. – spikenard, unguent [from Latin nardus, from Greek nardos; akin to Sanskrit nalada, narada] PIE?

neep, turnnip – næp m. – turnip [Teutonish, Icel. næpa; f. a turnip, likely from Latin napus] … afaik, this is not the same neep meaning a wagonʼs draft-tree (tung).

nefte, nepte f. – catʼs mint [from Latin nepeta]

note – nōt m. – mark, note [from Latin nota ‘a mark’ from a root of gno-, whence notis (notice), notion, notify, notorius, ignore; shares the IE root *gna ‘to know’ with English know. A nota is a mark whereby a thing is known.] … this is not the root of OE notian ‘to use, employ, make use of, enjoy’ … whence todayʼs like-spelld (homonymic) English note, with the same meanings as in OE, and benote ‘to consume, use up’ (also spelld like the Latin rooted benote ‘to denote, mark’) [liken Ger. nutzen, benutzen]
> nōtere m. – notary, one who makes notes, scribe, writer [Latin notarius ‘secretary’, from nota ‘mark’]
> nōtian – to mark, note [from Latin notare ‘to mark’]
> nōtwrītere – a note writer, scribe

November – November – November [from Latin novem ‘nine’ (being the ninth month of the Roman year)] … September and December mid heora seofon gefērum gladiaþ, … Anglia viii. 302, 1-4. 

nun – nunne f. – ‘nun’, pagan priestess, vestal [Teutonish, from church Latin nonna, fem of nonnus ‘monk, father’, titles of respect … liken Gr nanni, nenna ‘aunt’ and nannas, nennos ‘uncle’; English nana.]

nocturn – noctern m. n. – nocturn [from church Latin nocturnum, neuter of Latin nocturnus ‘of the night’]


October – October – October [from Latin octo ‘eight’ (being the eighth month of the Roman year)] … Januarius and October habbaþ twā rihtinga

offer – offrian – to offer, sacrifice, bring an oblation [Teutonish, from Latin offerre ‘bestow, present’ (in church Latin‘offer to God’)]

oil – ele m. – oil  [Teutonish (O. Sax. olig, n: Frs. oalje: O. Frs. olie: Dat. olie, f: Ger. ol, a: MHGer. ol, n: OHGer. olei, n: Goth. alew, n: Dan. olie, m. f: Swed. olja, f: Icel. olea, olia, f; Lat. oleum, n: Grk. elaion, n. olive oil; iala, f. olive-tree, olive fruit) mayhap from Latin oleum ‘(olive) oil’, from Greek elaia, from elaion ‘oil’ or IE root] … spelling change could be from any of the other tungs.

ōma? m. ome? f. – awm (40 gallons) [Teutonish, Ger Ohm; rooted on middl Latin (h)ama ‘water bucket’; likely from Greek αμη ‘water pail’]

orc I. m. – pitcher, crock, cup. [Late L. orca; L. urceus]? or from OE crocc 
     II. (orcen, orc-neas) m. demon, sea monsters [mayhap from Latin orcus ‘hell’] … or more likely Teutonish, liken Ice. orkn ‘ a kind of seal’

orel n. – robe, garment, mantle, veil [Latin orarium, orele]

organ [a later plural of orgoon is also found from the OE pl of organan] – organ, organa, organe f. – organ [Teutonish, likely from Latin organum, from Greek organon ‘tool, instrument, sense organ’ (akin to ergon ‘work’ and orgia ‘orgies, rites’, pl of orgion)] … whence also organize, organization 
> organistre, organystre m. – organist 

origanum – organe f. – marjoram, origanum vulgare [Latin, from Greek origanon, mayhap from oros ‘mountain’ + ganos ‘brightness’]

ounce – yndse f. – ounce; piece of money, shekel. [L. uncia, see inch]

oyster – ostre, oster f. – oyster [L. ostrca, from Greek ostreon; akin to osteon ‘bone’ and ostrakon ‘shell or tile’] … liken OE ost ‘knot, knob’
> oster-hlaf – oyster patty
> oster-scill – oyster shell


palace – palendse, palentse, pal(l)ente f., pālent m. – palace [Late L. palantium or palantia; Palatium, the name of the Palatine hill in Rome, where the house of the emperor was] …
> pālentlic – belonging to a palace, palatial

pall – pæll, pell m. – silk robe, cloak; ‘pall’ hanging, covering, purple garment, purple [from Latin pallium ‘covering, cloak’]

pallium – pallium m. – pallium [L. literally ‘covering’]

palm (æ), palma m. – ‘palmʼ tree [from Latin palma ‘palm (of a hand)’, its leaf being likened to a spred hand.]

pan – panne f. – pan [Teutonish, mayhap rooted on Latin patina ‘dish’; however Kluge writes: The Lat. form of patina, is scarcely adequate to serve as the immediate source of the Teut. words … p263, Pfanne. If borrow'd, mostly likely it is from a Keltic root.] 

paper – paper m – papyrus [from Latin papyrus ‘paper-reed’, from Greek papuros]

paradise – paradīs m. – paradise [from church Latin, from Greek paradeisos ‘royal (enclosed) park’, from Persian Avestan pairidaēza ‘enclosure, park’]

paralysis – paralisin ds. of sb. – paralysis [Latin, from Greek paralusis, from paraluesthai ‘be disabled at the side’, from para ‘beside’ + luein ‘loosen’] … Wið paralisin and wið neurisne … Lchdm. i. 12, 21 : 130, 11.

pard – pard m. – panther [from Latin, pardus ‘leopard’ from Greek παρδος ‘leopard’; panther came later from Latin panthera, from Greek panthēr. The two terms led to befuddling: until the mid 1800s, many taxonomists thought the panther and the leopard as sunder species. Liken Persian pars, parsh ‘a pard, panther’ ]

part – part m. – part [from Latin partem acc. of pars, a part. p., from the root par- ‘that which is afforded; a share’]

pater, paternoster – Paternoster m. n. – The Lord’s Prayer [from Latin pater ‘fater’+noster ‘our’] … som believ that pattern is rooted on pater

passion – passio(n) f. – passion [from late Latin passio(n-) (mainly a word in Christen theology), from Latin passus, pp of pati ‘suffer’, whence also passiv, patient; akin to Greek παθειν ‘suffer’, whence pathos] … and aeghwilc diacon arede twa passione fore his sawle, … Oswulf's Charters, c805

pebble – papolstān m. – pebble (pebblestone) [L. papula]? OED calls it unknown; Skeat, however calls it English: The difficulty in this etymology is in the preservation of the Aryan p in A.S.; but all Teutonic words beginning with p present unusual difficulties. The A. S. papal may have borrowed from Lat. papula as far as its form is concerned, but the sense hints at its being been a survival of something older. (Skeat, p429, pebble)

periwinkle – pervince, perwince f. – ‘periwinkleʼ (plant) [from late Latin pervinca]

parsley – petersilie f. – ‘parsleyʼ [late Latin based on Greek petroselinon, from petra ‘rock’ + selinon ‘parsley’] liken Ger. petersilie

pea (pease) – pise f. – peas [Latin pisum, from Greek pison]

peach – persic, -soc, -suc m. – peach [from medieval Latin persica, from Latin persicum (malum), literally ‘Persian apple’]

peacock – pea, pāwa m., pāwe f. – peacock, peahen [from Latin pavo, from Greek ταωσ, ταων, likely from Persian tawus, taus]

pear – pere, peru f. – pear [from Latin pirum]

peace – pais – peace [from Old French pais, from Latin pax, pac- ‘peace’ … whence also pay] LOE: Pais he makede men and dær. … AS Chronicles, 1135

peel, pillage – pillan – to peel, to pillage [may be from Latin pilare ‘to strip hair from’, from pilus ‘hair’. Could also be from OE pyllian, pullian ‘to pull, pluck off’. The otherness between peel and pill may be from the French verbs peler ‘to peel’ and piller ‘to pillage’.] LOE? - Ðis lácecræft sceal tó ðan handan ðe ðæt fell of pyleþ.

pelican – pellican m. – pelican [late Latin from Greek pelekan, likely rooted on pelekus ‘ax’ (anent its bill)]

pentecost – pentecosten m. – ‘Pentecostʼ, Whitsunday [Latin, from Greek pentēkostē (hēmera) ‘fiftieth (day)’ (for that the Jewish festival is held on the fiftieth day after the second day of Passover).]

peony – peonie f. – peony [Latin, from Greek paiōnia, from Paiōn, the name of the physician of the gods]
pepper – pipor m. – pepper [likely from Latin piper, from Greek peperi, from Sanskrit pippalī ‘berry, peppercorn’] … However, Teutonic, Latin, Greek, OSlov. (pipru), and Sanskrit may betoken an IE root.

pestle, pestell – pilstre f. – pestle [from Latin pistillum, from pist- ‘pounded’, from the verb pinsere; whence also piston, pistol]
> pil-stocc – pestle, pestell
> pil-stampe – pestle, pestell

pharaoh – pharoa – pharaoh [from church Latin, from Greek Pharaō, from Hebrew par῾ōh, from Egyptian pr-῾o ‘great house’]

Pharisee – Fariséos pl.  – Pharisees [from church Latin, from Greek Pharisaios, from Aramaic prīshayyā ‘sunder'd ones’ (akin to Hebrew pārūsh ‘sunder'd)]
> Fariseisc – of or belonging to the Pharisees

phenix, phoenix – fenix m. – phenix [thru Latin from Greek phoinix ‘Phoenician, reddish purple, or phenix’] … Fénix, swá hátte án fugel on Arabiscre þeóde,

philosopher – philosoph m. – philosopher [Latin, from Greek philosophos ‘lover of wisdom’, from philein ‘to love’ + sophos ‘wise’

pigment – pihment (y) – a pigment, drug [from Latin pigmentum, pig- from pingere ‘to paint’ + the afterfast -mentum ‘-ment’ ] … whence also paint, picture, and maybe pint … see also the after-fast -ment is noted here; see -ment abuv. B-T likens it to pihten below.

pihten – part of a loom ¿[Hall has it from Latin pecten, pectin- ‘a comb, rake’ … whence today’s pecten, pectinate, akin to OE fæx ‘hair’]? B-T likens it to OE pihment.

pile – pīl m. – ‘pileʼ, a pointed object, spike, nail, shaft, stake; arrow, dart, javelin: pl. hairs of plants [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pijl and German Pfeil, from Latin pilum ‘(heavy) javelin’, from Latin pila ‘pillar, pier’ whence pillar]

pile, pillar – pīle f.– mortar, pestle, stake [from Latin pila ‘pillar, pier’ whence pillar]

pilesse, pilch – pilece, pylece – [Teutonish, see pall abuv, OHGer. pelliz, Icel. piliza, ‘a fur coat’, from medieval Latin pellicia (vestis)‘(garment) of fur’, from Latin pellis ‘skin’

pillow – pyle (i) m. – pillow [akin to Dutch peluw and German Pfühl, mayhap rooted on Latin pulvinus ‘cushion’]

pin – pinn sb. – ‘pinʼ, peg; writing pen [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pin ‘pin, peg’, mayhap from Latin pinna, penna ‘point, tip, edge’]

pine, pain – pīn f. – pain, torment, anguish, torture. [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pijnen, Ger. peinen ‘experience pain’, also to bygone pine ‘punishment’; likely rooted on Latin poena ‘punishment’ whence also pain.] … in the end, pine and pain are only otherly spellings of the same word.
> pinian – to torment
> pinere – tormenter
> pīnness – torment, pain

pine (tree) – pīn-treow n. – pine [¿from Latin pinus? for pic-nus, the tree giving pitch; from pic-, stem of pix ‘pitch’. Liken Gk. πιτυς a ‘pine’] see ptich below
pinsian – to weigh, consider, examine, reflect [from Latin pensare ‘to weigh, weigh out’ whence also poise, compensate; akin to or from pendere ‘to hang’ whence pendent, pensiv] See also apinsian.
> pinsung

pipe – pipe f. – pipe, musical instrument [Teutonish, mayhap from Latin pīpa; rooted on Latin pipare ‘to peep, chirp’ ] … “The word perhaps may be claimed as English, being obviously of imitative origin, from the ‘peeping’ or chirping sound; … It is very wide spread. … If the word was borrowed at all, it was, taken from Celtic, i. e. from the old British.” … Skeat, p445, pipe

pīs – heavy [Latin pensum ‘a deal, weight, task’]

pīsle f. – warm chamber [Low L. pisalis?  liken OFrs. pisel ‘chamber’; “pisel, pesel ist in Niedersachsen, Dietmarschen, Nordfriesland and Süddänemark, phiesel in Baiern für verschiedene arten von gemächern noch gangbar” Richthofen. OHGer. pfisel pisalis, pisale, pirale, Grff. 3, 352. 'Pisalis videtur fuisse vestiarium seu vestiaria theca,' Du Cange]

pit – pytt m. – ‘pitʼ, hole, well, grave, pustule [early Teutonish, maybe from L. puteus, itself mayhap from Lat. putus, from the same root as purus ‘pure, clean’]

pitch - pic n. – pitch (tar) [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pek, German Pech, and OIc bik; rooted on Latin pix, pic-, picem; akin to Latin pinus ‘pine’] … see pine abuv

place (also pleck) – plæce f. – open room, street [Teutonish, from Latin platea ‘open room’, from Greek plateia (hodos) ‘broad (way)’, likely from platus from an IE root of *plat … see plant below] … liken Ger. Platz, Ice. plaz. … Oddly, the ODO puts place as ME and Skeat puts plæc, plæca (not with an e tho I can’t find it as such in the nom.) as belonging to plot, patch (platch).

planet – planeta m., f? – planet [from late Latin planeta, planetes, from Greek planētēs ‘wanderer, planet’ from planan ‘wander’] … the Anglo word is tungol.

plant – plante f. – ‘plantʼ, shoot [erly Teutonish, from Latin planta ‘sprout, cutting’ or from the same IE root *plat ‘spreading’; liken Greek  platus ‘flat, spreding, broad’ whence plate, place?] Liken to clan [from Scottish Gaelic clann, from Old Irish cland, said to be from Latin planta ‘sprout’]? … Ger. Pflanze
> plantian – to plant
> aplantian 
> geplantian 

plaster – plaster n. – ‘plasterʼ (as a salve) [from medieval Latin plastrum (shortening of Latin emplastrum, from Greek emplastron ‘daub, salve’), the neut. of emplastos ‘daubed on or over’, from emplassein ‘to daub on’; em- ‘in-’(for en before a p) and plassein ‘to mould, form in clay or wax’; akin to OE feald ‘fold’] … whence plastic
> plasterplatian– to cover, plaster with metal plates 

plate – platian – to cover with plates [likely from medieval Latin plata ‘plate armor’, rooted on or from Greek platus ‘flat’ … whence also platter, plateau, from IE root *plat ‘spreading’; liken OE plot, English plat, plot
> geplatod – plated
> aplatian
> platung f. – metal plate [v. plate] … Obrizum, platum, smaete gold … Mone, Quellen, p. 403.

play – plega m. – quick motion, moovment, exercise; ‘play’, festivity, drama, game, sport; battle; applause [root unknown, but sum think it may akin to or from Latin plaga ‘stroke, wound’, if so, then likely from Greek (Doric dialect) plaga, from a base meaning ‘strike’ … whence also plague]

pleat, plait – plett f. – fold [Latin plecta ‘hurdleʼ, rooted on plicare ‘to fold’ … whence also ply]

plume – plūmfeþer f. – down (plume-feather) [Teutonish, Ger. pflaum, from Latin pluma ‘down’] … however

plum, prune – plȳme, plūme f. – plum, plum-tree [from medieval Latin pruna, from Latin prunum, from Greek prou(m)non ‘plum’; IE root unk. Semitic?] 
> plum-sla – sloe, wild plum
> plum-seaw – plum juice
> plum-treo – plum tree

point – pynca, pinca m. – point [from Latin puncta ‘pricking’]
> pyngan – to prick, puncture, punch

pole, pale – pāl m. – pole, pale, stake, post; spade. [Teutonish; akin to Dutch paal and German Pfahl, rooted on Latin palus ‘stake’]

polente – polente f. – parched corn, ‘polentaʼ [from Latin polenta ‘pearl barley’]
pollegie f. – pennyroyal [from Latin pulegium ‘thyme’]

pont, pontoon – punt – punt [Teutonish, from Latin ponto, for a flat-bottom'd, from pons, pont- ‘bridge’; akin to path  … not ‘puntʼ the verb meaning ‘to kick’] 

pope – pāpa m. – pope [L. papa]
> popehood – pāpanhād m. – papal office
> popedom – pāpdōm m. – papacy, popedom
poplar – popul – poplar (popul-tre) [from Latin populus ‘poplar, people’] …  whence also popular

poppy – popig – poppy [mayhap from a medieval Latin twisting of Latin papaver]

por, porr, porlēac n. – leek [L. porrum]

port – port I. mn. – port, harbor; town with a harbor [from Latin portus ‘haven, harbor’
                 II. m. portal, door, gate, entrance, opening [from Latin porta ‘gate’]

portico, porche – portic mn. – portico, porch, vestibule, sanctuary, chapel [from Latin porticus ‘porchʼ]

post – post m. – post [Latin postis ‘doorpost’, later ‘rod, beam’]

pot – pott m. – pot [from Welsh pot, liken late Latin potus ‘drinking cup’]

pound – pund n. – pound (in weight or in money), pint [Teutonish, akin to Dutch pond and German Pfund, from Latin (libra) pondo, denoting a Roman ‘(pound) weight’ of 12 ounces; akin to pundus ‘a weight’, whence also ponder.] … This is otherly from the other pund (whence pound as in dog-pound) and OE punian ‘to pound’.
> pundur n. – weight, plumb-line [L. pondere]
> pundern-georn – yearn to ponder, weigh, consider
> apundrian – weigh? ponder?

preach – predician – to preach [Teutonish, from church Latin praedicare ‘proclaim’,  from prae- ‘before; beforehand’ + dicare ‘proclaim’, near kin to dicere ‘say’ … whence predict] … later sway'd by OF precher.
> predicere m. One who goes before and announces; a preacher
> predicung f. Preaching 

press – press f. – press [from Latin ‘pressus’, from a base PRAM ‘to press’. Root unknown. Liken Goth. anapraggan (ana-prang-an)]

pride – pryd, pryt, pryte f. – pride, pomp, haughtiness [from OE prud, prut … see proud below] … Skeat calls it English with an unknown root (p466).

priest – prēost (ēa, ē, īo) m. – ‘priestʼ,ʼ presbyter [Teutonish; akin to Dutch priester, German Priester, rooted on Latin presbyter ‘elder’, from Greek presbuteros ‘elder’ (noted in the New Testament for an elder of the early church), comparativ of presbus ‘old (man)’

prime – prīm n – ‘primeʼ, the first hour (6 a.m.): the service held at 6 a.m. [from Latin prima (hora)‘first (hour)’, from Latin primus ‘first’, akin to OE forma, fruma]

prior – prior m. – a prior [from Latin, literally ‘former, elder’ akin to prae ‘before’] LOE? … Hine God geuferade ðæt hé wearð prior … Chart. Th. 445, 34
pronoun – pronomia – pronoun [Latin pronomen, from pro- ‘for, in place of’ + nomen ‘name’] … þa pronomina, þe habbaþ vocativum, þá habbaþ six casus … the pronouns which hav a vocativ, then hav six cases

proov [prove] – prōfian – to assume to be, take for, esteem, regard as, demonstrate [from Latin probare ‘test, approve, demonstrate’, from probus ‘good’

proud – prūd, prūt – ‘proudʼ, arrogant [¿from Latin prodesse ‘be of value’?] [Icel. prúþr gallant, brave, magnificent] Skeat calls it as English and says the root is unknown.
> prutung – proudness 

provost – profost, prafost m. – officer, ‘provostʼ, reeve [Teutonish, from medieval Latin propositus, synonym of Latin praepositus ‘head, chief’]

prutene f. – southern-wood, wormwood [L. abrotanum]

psalm – psealm, psalm, sealm (a, eo) m. – ‘psalm’, song [from church Latin, from Greek psalmos ‘song sung to harp music’, from psallein ‘to pluck’]
> salletan – to sing psalms, play on, or sing to, the harp. [L. psallere, from Greek] 

psalter – psaltere, saltere (ea) m. – ‘psalterʼ, collection of psalms, service book containing the psalms, BH, Ct; Æ: psaltery, Lcd (ps-). [from Latin psalterium from Greek psaltērion ‘stringed instrument’]

pumice, pounce (fine dust) – pumic m – pumice [L. pumicem]

pure – purlamb n. – lamb without blemish … pure? [from Latin purus  + lamb; from the IE root *pu ‘purify, clense’, whence OE fyr ‘fire’ and Greek pyro- ‘fire’]

purpl, purple = purpur [[under "purpure"]]
purple – purpure f. – purpur, ‘purpleʼ, a purple garment [from Latin purpura ‘purple’, from Greek porphura, marking mollusks that yielded a crimson dye, also cloth dyed with this.]

purse, burse – purs – purse [Teutonish, late L. bursa, from Greek bursa ‘hide, leather’ (IE root unknown)… whence also bursar] … Skeat says that the shift from first b to p is seld and froward to the wonted shift from p to b.

pyretre f. – pellitory [L. pyrethrum]

pyrric – pirenisc – Pyrrhenian


quart, quarter – cwatern, cwætern – the number four at dice (quart, quarter) [from Latin quartarius ‘fourth part of a measure’, from quartus ‘fourth’, from quattuor ‘four’, akin to English four]
> cwarten n. – guardhouse, blockhouse (four sides), prison, quarters 


rabid – rabbian – to rage, rave [from Latin rabere ‘to rave’, whence rabid, rage]

radish – rædic m. – radish [from Latin radix, radic- ‘root’]

regulation, rule, ruler (stick) – regol (eo) m. – rule, regulation, canon, law, standard, pattern; monastic code of rules; ruler (instrument). [Latin regula ‘rule, straight stick’] … see also OE regn- below.

reign – regn-, regen-, ren- – greatness, might, arch- (a forefast found in kennings) [mayhap from ¿Latin regnum, from regare ‘to direct’, akin to rex, reg- ‘king’? or, more likely, the ur-Teut root *rēk, rak, from the IE root *reg, rag ‘to direct’ … liken Gothic raginón ‘to rule’, ragineis ‘a ruler, counsellor’, ragin ‘ordinance, counsel’, Icel. regin; pl. n. (in olden skalds and sagas) ‘the gods, the rulers of the universe’, a forefast meaning ‘mighty, great’, Danish regne
> regnian – to set in order, arrange, dispose, regulate, rule, command, reign
> regniend, reniend – one who arranges, regent 
> regnmeld – mighty, solemn, high meld (announcement, declaration)
> regntheof – arch-thief
> regnheard – mighty hard
> regnmeld – mighty, solemn announcement
> regnward, renward – mighty, strong guard
> berenian – to cause, bring about

relic – relic-gang m. – a going to visit relics [see reliquias below] … akin to derelict ‘forsaken’

reliquias; pl. m. – relics of saints [from Latin reliquus ‘remaining’, from Lat. relinquere (pt. reliqui, pp. relictus) ‘to leave behind, forsake’, from Lat. re- ‘back, behind’ + linquere ‘to leave’, akin to licere ‘to let’, whence license.] 

renge, rynge, ringe f. – spider, spiderʼs web [mayhap from Latin aranea ‘spider’ but as likely, if not more so, from hring ‘ring’ owing to the shape of the web]

rent – rente – rent [from Old French rente, from a nasaliz'd shape (rendita) of Lat. reddita, fb. reddita pecunia ‘money paid’, fem of redditus, pp. of reddere ‘to give back’, from re(d) ‘back’, dare ‘giv’, whence also render. Rent = that which is renderd] … LOE, found in the AS Chronicles, 1137

response – respons – a response [from Latin responsum ‘something offered in return’, neuter past participle of responsus (whence responsible, responsiv, respondent, asf.) from respondere, from re- ‘back’ + spondere ‘to pledge’ … whence also sponsor]
> reps, ræps m. – response (in a church service) [from Latin responsorium]

rose - rōse, rose; pl rosan f. – rose (Old pl. is rosen) [Teutonish, from Latin rosa, from Greek, from Arabic?]

rue – rūde, rūte f. – rue (shrub) [likely from Latin ruta from Greek rhutē, B-T has ?] … not rue ‘regret’ the verb

ruin? – hryre m. – fall, downfall, ruin, destruction, perdition, decay, decline, death; (adj.) falling, decaying, perishing [mayhap from or akin to Latin ruere ‘to fall down, tumble’ whence Latin ruinaruin’ or, more likely, an IE root … however, the IE root for ruere is not gewiss]
> leōd-hryre m. – fall, ruin, or destruction of a people
> līc-hryre m. – fall or ruin of the body; death
> wig-hryre m. – fall in fight 

rule, ruler (stick), regulation – regol (eo) m. – rule, regulation, canon, law, standard, pattern; monastic code of rules; ruler (instrument). [Latin regula ‘rule, straight stick’]

rush – risc, risce (e; = y) f. – rush (plant) [¿from Latin ruscus? OED calls it Teutonish, (MHGer. rusch; f. a rush : Du. rusch; Skeat is ungewiss)] 


saban m. (?) – a sheet [Teutonish (found in Goth and OHG); akin to or from Mid. Latin sabanum; Greek σάβανον; liken Span. sabana ‘a sheet’. Diefenbach ii. 770 qwethes an Arabic word sabaniyat ‘fine stuff for girdles, veils, asf.’, stemming from the name of the town Sabano near Bagdad.]

sabbath – sabat m. (?) – sabbath [Teutonish, liken Goth. Sabbato, Sabbatus; from church Latin sabbatum, from Greek σαββατον, from Hebrew shabbāth, from shāḇaṯh ‘to rest’] … today’s spelling is from the sway of Hebrew shabbath.

sack – sacc (æ) m. – sack, bag [Teutonish, from Latin saccus ‘sack, sackcloth’, from Greek sakkos, from Hebrew or Phoenician sak]

sacre, sacerdotal – sācerd mf. – priest, priestess … not forheld to Christen priests, also for heathens [from Latin sacerdos, sacerdot- ‘priest’ or more likely from Latin from sacer, sacr- ‘holy’ … whence sacre] [Anglo-Saxon alone seems to hav borrow'd this word among the Teutonish tungs.] 
> sacerdlic – priestly, sacerdotal, sacred

sælmerige f. – brine [L. *salmoria; Gk. +halmuris+]

sæppe f. – spruce fir [from Latin sappinus]

saint – sanct m. – holy person, saint [from Latin sanctus ‘holy’, past participle of sancire ‘consecrate’]

salvia, sage – salfige, saluige f. – salvia, sage [Latin salvia ‘healing plant’, from salvus ‘safe’ … whence also safe, save, salvage, salvation]

Saturday – sætern-dæg, sæter(n)es- m. – Saturday, [oversetting of Latin Saturni dies ‘day of Saturn’]

salvia, sage – salfie, salfige f. – sage [from Latin salvia ‘healing plant’, from salvus ‘safe, uninjured’] … whence also save, safe

savin – safene, safine f. – savine (a kind of juniper) [from Latin sabina (herba) ‘Sabine (herb)’]

savory – sæþerie f. – savory (plant) [from Latin satureia]

scapular – scapulare f. – scapular, scapulary, a short cloak [from late Latin scapulare, from Latin scapula ‘sholder’ ] … also call'd eaxlclāð

school – scōl f. – ‘school’, troop, host, multitude [Latin from Greek skholē ‘leisure, philosophy, place where lectures are given’
> scōla m. – fellow-student
> scōlere m. – ‘scholar’, learner
> scōlmann m. – scholar, pupil; client

scrætte f. – adulteress, prostitute [L. scratta]

scriptor – tīdscriptor m. – chronographer, chronicler [from Latin scribere ‘write’ … whence also script]

scrofula – scrofel, scrofell, es; n. – scrofula [medieval Latin scrofula ‘littel pig’, littling of Latin scrofa ‘breeding sow, digger’ (said to be open to the illness)] … som say this is also the root of screw

scuttle – scutel m. –  dish, platter, skillet? [Teutonish, mayhap from Old Norse skutill, itself mayhap from Latin scutella ‘dish, tray’ (or mayhap straight from Latin [Skeat, p536]), from scuta ‘dish, tray, platter’, likely akin to scutum ‘shield’… whence also squire, from an IE root *sku ‘cover’, whence sky] …  B-T has a ? by Latin. 

sealtian, saltian – to dance [from saltare ‘to dance’, (… whence also saltation, saltatorial), from salire ‘to leap’ … whence also assail, salient]

sēamere I. m. – beast of burden, mule [L. sagmarius]?

secure, sure – sicor –  secure, sure, certain, trustworthy (ME siker, sikur) [L. securus, from se- ‘without’ + cura ‘care’. Liken to OE ‘orsorgʼ, ‘free from care, without angst, secure, safeʼ from or- ‘without’ + sorg ‘care’, OHG ursorg … today’s spelling secure is from one of the many 16th hundyear spelling edshapings to take words back nearer to their Latin spellings.]  … whence also sure.

seine – segne f. – seine, scan, dragnet [Latin from Greek sagēnē]

semi – sām- – half-, shows a partial or imperfect condition [L. semi-] … There is also … sam- (= together) meaning union, combination, or agreement (Teutonish)

senep m. – mustard [erly Teutonish, Goth. sinap: OHGer. senaf: Ger. senf; liken Latin sinapi, Greek σιναπι ... Kulge (p333, Senf) writes: but since they are not genuine Aryan words, it is possible the South Teutons and Græco-Itals. obtained them independently from the same source.]

September – September – September [from Latin septem ‘seven’ (being the seventh month of the Roman year)] … September and December mid heora seofon gefērum gladiaþ

sescle f. – sixth part. [L. sextula]

sester (eo, y) m. – a measure of bulk, Æ: vessel, pitcher, Æ. [L. sextarius]

senate – senatus – senate, witana [from Latin senatus, from senex ‘old man’, whence also senior, liken Goth. sinista ‘eldest, senior’ found in the word seneschal ‘senior servant’]
> senator – senator – senator, witan

service, serf (sorbus) – syrfe f., syrfe-treow – service-tree [from Latin servus ‘slave’, for Latin sorbus ‘service tree’

sess m. – spot for settling, sitting; seat, bench [unknown, mayhap from or akin to Latin sessus ‘seated’, from the verb sedere … whence session; liken also OIcel. sess ‘seat, bench’] … in later prov. English, sossed ‘soakt’; sess ‘a kind of peat turf’; sessle ‘change seats often’; sesspool (cesspool) … He gesæt on sesse, Beowulf Th. 5427
> sessian – subside, ebb, grow calm, cease

Severn – Sæfern f. – Severn. [L. Sabrina]

shambles – scamol, scamel, scamul, asf m. – stool, footstool, bench, table (of money-changers) [Teutonish, from Latin scamellum, littling of scamnum ‘bench’]

shrift – scrift m. – prescribed penalty or penance; absolution; confessor; judge. tō scrifte gān to go to confession [erly Teutonish, OFris. scriva to mete out a punishment’, Olc. skript ‘confession, punishment’, skripta to andett (confess), make andett, punish’.] However Skeat writes that: Icel. skript or skrift, Swed. skrift, Dan. skrift, shrift, are all borrowed from A.S. … Skeat, p551, Shrove-Tuesday. 
Thus, mayhap from Latin scriptus from scribere (see below); however Kluges writes: 

In the latter cognates there appears at all events a genuine Teut. verbal root, skrib, to inflict a punishment’ which was transferred by Christianity to ecclesiastical affairs; … On the adoption of Roman characters, and the introduction of the art of writing (in contrast to the earlier Runic system …), Lat. scribere was now combined with this genuine Teut. vb., … Kluge, p322, schreiben

***Keep in mind that Kluge was writing about German schreiben which indeed blended with the Latin. However, no such blend happt in English as shrive has nothing to do with writing. Thus, one can say that shrive and likely shrift both hav a clean Teut. root. A few say that the ur-Teut. root comes from the Latin which is unlikely.

> shrive – scrīfan – prescribe, ordain, allot, assign, impose (punishment); hear confession, shrive; have regard to, be troubled about, care for [erly Teutonish, mayhap from Latin scribere ‘write’] … whence also script. Shrive is a strong verb: shrive, shrove, shriven which often, not always, betokens that is a Teutonish word.

shrine – scrīn (ý) n. – shrine, chest, coffer, ark, cage (for criminals) [Teutonish, likely from Latin scrinium ‘chest for books’]

sickle – sicol m. – sickle [Teutonish, akin to Dutch sikkel and German Sichel, mayhap rooted on Latin secula, from secare ‘to cut’, but more likely Teut. sëko-, from the IE root seg, sok ]

sigle f. – rye, black spelt [from Latin secale; later segale, sigalum, sigla] … nother than OE sigle n. ‘necklace, collar’

sign – segn, segen, seign m, n. – sign, mark, token, military standard, banner, an ensign [likely from Latin signum ‘mark, token’] … IF it is a borrowing from Latin, Kluge says AS segen must hav been borrow before erly before church Latin.

silk – seolc m. – silk [the OED calls it from late Latin sericum, neuter of Latin sericus, based on Greek Sēres, the name given to the inhabitants of the Far Eastern countries from which silk first came overland to Europe. However Kluge (p331) naysays this: It is usually assumed that these latter terms come from the Lat. … they must, however especially since their forms can scarcely be deduced from the Lat., be more fittingly connected … with an Eastern term. The Seres, from whom the Greeks obtained their term σηρικος (Lat. séricus), adj., cannot, as an East Asiatic people, be regarded as the immediate source of the North Europ. loanwords.]

sock – socc m. – sock, light shoe, slipper [Teutonish, from Latin soccus ‘comic actorʼs shoe, light low-heeled slipper’, from Greek sukkhos]

sole – sole (u) f. – shoe, sandal [Teutonish, liken to Dutch zool, German Sohle, and Swed sola; likely from Latin solea ‘sandal, sill’, from solum ‘bottom, pavement, sole’; root unknown | could be from or akin to OE sol, solu, sylu, sylian ‘soil’]

sol – sol f.? – sol, sun [Teutonish, (Goth. sauil; n. : Icel. sol; f) , from Latin sol ‘sun’?] … not OE sol meaning soil, miry sted
> solmerca m. – sundial [sol + mearca ‘mark’]
> solate, solsece (æ) f. – heliotrope [L. solsequia ‘sun-following’]

solar, solarium? – solar, solor m. – loft, upper room; ‘palatiumʼ hall, dwelling [L. solarium? or from OE sol]  [Goth. sauil; n. : Icel. sol; f

sot – sott – fool; foolish, stupid [likely from medieval Latin sottus, mayhap from Celt. … Bret. sot, sod ‘stupid’; Ir. suthaire, suthan ‘dunce’; mayhap also a belittling word for Scotts, it is known that Theodulf, bishop of Orleans, punnd upon the words Scotus and sottus (Scot and sot) in a letter to Charles the Great; liken also ODu zot]

souter, sooter – sūtere m. – shoemaker, souter, shoe-wright [from Latin sutor, from suere ‘sew’ ... whence also suture, from IE *siw, su ‘to sew’, whence also Eng sew, Sansk. siv ‘sew’]

sound – sōn m. – sound, music [from Latin sonus. The shape with -d was done in the 16th hundyear.]

spelt – spelt m. — spelt, corn [OHGer. spelza spelta; ¿from Latin spelta?] LOE?

spend – spendan – to spend [Teutonish, from Latin dispendere ‘pay out’]
> spend, spending – spendung – spending
> aspend – aspendan – to spend (money), expend, distribute, squander, consume
> forspend – forspendan – to spend utterly, exhaust, squander  … to be forspent is to be exhausted

spice – spīce f., spīca m. – aromatic herb, spice [from Latin species ‘sort, kind’ in late Latin ‘wares’]

sponge – sponge, spynge (i), spyncge f. – sponge [Latin spongia, from Greek σπογια (spongia), later form of σπογγος (spongos) … whence also fungus… akin to swamp]

spyrte (e, i) f. – wicker basket, eel-basket [L. sporta]

stagnant? (s)tank? – stæg n. – pool, pond [¿L. stagnum ‘pool’?] root of stagnant, stagnate

stāncyst, stāncysten – chestnut-tree. [from Latin castanea, from Greek kastana, from the name of a town in Pontus]

stilla – drop [from Latin stilla ‘a drop’, whence also distil, still] … Yrnþ dropmǣlum swīðe hluttor wæter, ðæt gecīgdon ða ðe on ðære stōwe wunodon stillam, ðæt is dropa

stole – stole f. – stole [from Latin, from Greek stolē ‘clothing’, from stellein ‘array’; akin to E. stall]

stop – stoppian – stop, shut an apertur [Teutonish, akin to German stopfen, mayhap ¿from late Latin stuppare ‘to stuff’, from Latin stuppa, ‘tow’?; Kluge casts doubt on that assumption and says there is an implied IE root stup, tup, linkt to Sans. stump (tump) ‘to push, thrust’, Greek stuphein ‘draw together’] … if so, then that would likely lead to an Teut. root for stuff as well since they all share the same IE root.
>forstoppian – to stop up, forstop

storax, styrax – stōr m. – incense, frankincense [L. storax, from Greek sturax] … the other stor, meaning ‘great, strong; important; violent’, is likely from or akin to ON storr.
> stor-fæt – censor (incense-vat)
> stor-sticca – incense stick
> stor-sæp – resin

story – steōr, ster, stær n. – history, story [root unknown, mayhap from or akin to Latin/Greek historia or from an IE root of *star ‘to spred out, scatter’, akin to OE steorra ‘star’] … On Ongelcynnes steōre, ðæt is, on historia Anglorum

strǣl I. fm. – arrow, dart, missile [Ger. Strahl]  …  this word with this meaning is Teutonish, see II 
> II. (also strǣgl, strēl) f. – curtain, quilt, matting, bed [¿mayhap from L. stragula?]

strap – strop – strap [Teutonish, mayhap from Latin stroppus ‘thong’] … However, liken German straff for which Kluges says: It has been supposed that Ital. strappare, ‘to tear out’, is borrowed from Teut. by assuming a root strap, ‘to draw’ ; hence straff, lit. ‘drawn tight’? … p.352, Straff
> strapul m. – a covering for the leg, kind of trouser 

street – strǣt I. f. – ‘streetʼ, high road [Teutonish, from late Latin strāta (via)‘paved (way)’, fem of stratus, past participle of sternere ‘lay down, strew’, from an IE root of *star ‘to spred out, scatter’, whence also strew, straw, star and, thru Greek, strategy, stratagem] … whence also stray … one who roves the streets
> II. f. – bed, couch [from Latin stratum ‘something spread or laid down’, neuter past participle of sternere ‘lay down, strew’ … akin to English strath (from Gaelic srath]

strýta (ū) m. – ostrich [late Latin struthio, or straight from Greek strouthiōn ‘ostrich’, from strouthos ‘sparrow or ostrich’]

study – studdian – to study, see, take care of [from Latin studere ‘to be keen about’]
> bestuddian – to study, be keen about, take care of

stult, stultify – styltan – to be amaz'd, daz'd, hesitate [unknown, mayhap from or akin to Latin stultus ‘foolish’ which itself is likely a borrowing from Teutonish]
>gestyltan – to be astonisht, to be silent from astonishment

sūþerige – ‘satirionʼ (plant) [L. satureia? liken sæþerie]

swiftlēre (u, y) m. – slipper [L. subtalaris]

syllable – syllaba – syllable [Latin syllaba, from Greek sullabē, from sun- ‘together’ + lambanein ‘take’] … Syllaba is stæfgefég on ánre orþunge geendod.

syllabus – syllabus – syllabus [Latin syllabus ‘list’ , from Greek sullabē, from sun- ‘together’ + lambanein ‘take’]

Syndonisc – Indian [L. from Gk.]

synod – sinoþ (e, eo, y) f. – synod, council, meeting, assembly [L. synodus, from Greek sunodos ‘meeting’, from sun- ‘together’ + hodos ‘way’]


table, tablet – tabule f. – ‘tableʼ; writing ‘tabletʼ, gaming table, table of the law; a wooden hammer, or piece of wood struck as a signal for assembling monks [from Latin tabula ‘plank, tablet, list’]

tacc, taccian – ?, tame sudue [tact? tuch softly? liken thack]

tæfl fn. – cube, die, game with dice or tables [L. tabula]? [Icelandic taj? ] see tassel, tessera, table
> tæflan, tæfian to gamble
> tæfle adj. given to dice-playing
> tæflere m. gambler.
> tæflstān m. gambling-stone, die
> tæflung f. gaming, playing at dice.

talent – talente f. – ‘talentʼ (money of account) [from Latin talenta, from talentum ‘weight, sum of money’ from Greek talanton; Witt of skill is from the biblical bysen (parable) of the talents (Matt. 25:14–30)]

tan, tanbark, tannin, tawny – getannian – to tan, work leather [mayhap from medieval Latin tannare, mayhap of Celtic rise; Bret. tann ‘oak tree’ or Teut., OHG tanna ‘fir, oak, forest tree’]
> tannere – tanner

taper – tapor m. – taper, wick of a lamp [unalike shape (by swapping p- to t-) of Latin papyrus, from Greek papuros, the pith of which was noted for candle wicks; however, Clark writes: Celtic?]

tapet – tæppet, tæpped n. – tapis, tapestry, carpet, cover [likely from Latin tapete ‘carpet’, from Greek tapētion; liken Persian tabasta, a frinjd carpet or cushion] … however, tap from OE tæppa has a Teut. root.

tassel, tessera – tasul, tasol, teosel, teosul (a, e) m. – die (‘tesseraʼ) [from Latin taxillus(?), tessellis, from Greek, neuter of tesseres, variant of tessares ‘four’]

Thames – Temes, Temese f. – river Thames [L. Tamisia]

temple – tempel, templ n. – temple, hof [from Latin templum ‘open or consecrated space’ … whence also template, contemplate; akin to or from Greek temenos ‘sacred enclosure, hof’] … spelling later shifted to match Old French temple; the older OE word was ealh, alh ‘tempel’
> tempelgeat n. temple-door
> templgeweorc n. structure of the temple
> templhâlgung f. dedication of the temple
> templic adj. of a temple, fanaticus

temper, tamper – temprian v. – to temper, moderate regulate; mix, mingle; cure, heal; control, curb [from Latin temperare ‘mingle, restrain oneself; moderate, regulate’ … akin to tempus ‘time, season’ whence tempestas ‘tempest, storm’, see ungetemprung, and later, temporal]
> temprung f. – tempering, moderation
> ungetemprung f. – tempest, ruff weather, intemperies [likely swayd by Latin tempestas ‘season, weather, storm’, from tempus ‘time, season’]

term, terminus – termen m. – term, end [from Old Latin termen, whence Latin terminus ‘end, boundary, limit’, from or akin to Greek τερμα, terma ‘limit’, from IE *tar ‘go beyond, cross, fulfill’, whence en•ter and thrum ‘end of a thred, endpiece’, see OE tungethrum ‘ligament’ and German Trumm ‘endpiece’]

thyme? – þimiama m. – incense [L. thymiama, ? from Greek thumon, from thuein ‘burn, sacrifice’]

tiara –  tigera (bufantigera) – tiara [from Latin, from Greek, likely from Persian]

tile – tigele, tigle, tiegle f. – tile, brick, earthenware [likely from Latin tegula ‘tile, that which covers’, from tegere ‘to cover’ … whence also the -tect in protect; from an IE root *stag meaning ‘cover’, whence also thatch (liken OE teld, teldan, teldian from a Teut. root teld ‘spred out, cover’)]

tiger – tiger – tiger [from Latin tigris, from Greek tigris, likely from Persian]
> tigerish – tigrisc – of a tiger

timpani, timbrel, tympanum – timpane f. – timbrel, kettledrum [from Latin tympanum ‘drum’, from Greek tumpanon ‘drum’, rooted on tuptein ‘to strike’; whence also type]
> timpestre f. – female timbrel-player

title (v) – tītelian – to indicate by a written mark, entitle, ascribe [from Latin titulus ‘inscription, title’
> tītelung f. – ‘recapitulatioʼ, a giving of titles or headings,
> title (n) – tītul m. – title, superscription [from Latin titulus ‘inscription, title’]

toll – toll mn. – toll [mayhap from medieval Latin toloneum, shift of late Latin teloneum, from Greek telōnion ‘tollhouse’, from telos ‘tax’ but Kluge says (p409, Zoll): The Ger. words are, … so old, and correspond so closely, that they must be regarded as of genuine Teut. origin. Zoll is connected with the root tal (appearing in zählen and Zahl), of which it is an old partic. in no- (ll from ln), and hence it signified originally ‘that which is counted’.] … liken told from tell meaning: count (the members of a series or groop): The shepherd had told all his sheep. / all told meaning ‘in total, all counted’: All told, there were about 20 bods there.

torque, torq, torc, tork – torcul n. – wine-press [Teutonish, mayhap from Latin torquere ‘to twist’ (akin to OE þrawan, Eng. throw), likely from Greek, see turn below … same root for torch, torc … however, liken OE torcyrre – hard to twist [tor-cyrr]]

tor, tower – torr, tur m. – tower, watch-tower; rock, crag [Teutonish, mayhap from Celtic and akin to Welsh twr ‘tower’ and Scottish Gaelic tòrr ‘bulging hill’, liken prov. E. (Devon) tor ‘a conical hill’; ¿L. turris?, from Greek turris ‘tower, bastion’; however anent coming from Latin turris, Kluge says: AS. tur, E. tower, with the variant AS. torr, 'tower', also present a difficulty … p371, Turm]

tract – tract, traht m. – ‘tractʼ, text, passage: exposition, treatise, commentary [Teutonish, OHGer. trahtôn, ¿mayhap from Latin tractus (or tractatus) ‘drawing, dragging’, from trahere ‘draw, pull’; or tractare ‘to treat, reflect on’?; however, Kluge states: The genuine Teut. origin of OHG trahtôn is undoubted … p365, trachten] 
> trahtaþ m. – commentary
> trahtbōc f. – (religious) treatise, commentary [trahtian] 
> trahtere, -nere m. – expounder, commentator, expositor
> trahtian, -nian – to treat, comment on, explain, expound, consider. [liken Ger. trachten, from OHG trahton]
> trahtnung, trahtung f. – explanation, exposition, commentary
> atrahtnian to treat, discuss
> getrahtian, getrahtnian – to treat, explain, expound, consider
> godspelltraht m. – gospel commentary
> intrahtnung f. – interpretation, explaination
> ofertrahtnian – to comment on, expound
> sealmtraht m. – exposition of psalms

trajectory? – tracter – funnel [from Latin tractârius ‘funnel’, from trajectorium or straight from traject- ‘thrown across’, from the verb traicere, from trans- ‘across’ + jacere ‘to throw’ … whence also trajectory, jet]

treacle – tyriaca, tiriaca m. – treacle, sovereign remedy [Late Latin *triacula, from Latin theriacum; from Greek thēriakē ‘antidote against venom’, fem of thēriakos (adjectiv), from thērion ‘wild beast’ from the IE root *ghwer- ‘wild’ …  whence also fierce] týrian = tēorian, not akin to tyriaca.]

tremissis – trimes, trymes mf., -messe f., -messa m. – a drachm weight: an English coin; a Roman coin, ‘tremissis’ = 3 denarii [ also OE 'thrimsa'] … [ the tri- from Latin and Greek, from Latin tres,Greek treis ‘three’]

tribute – trifet, trifot n. – tribute [Teutonish, OHGer. tribuz, from L. tributum, neuter past participl (noted as a noun) of tribuere ‘assign’ (first meant ‘divide between tribes’), from tribus ‘tribe’

trimuph – triumpha m. – triumph [from Latin triump(h)us, likely from Greek thriambos ‘hymn to Bacchus’  sung in festal march to his honor; also a name for Bacchus] … Forsōc ðæne triumphan (forsook the triumph)

triturate – trifulian – to break, bruise, stamp, triturate [from Latin tribulare ‘press, oppress’, from tribulum ‘threshing board (made of sharp points)’, rooted on terere ‘rub’ … whence also trite, tribulation]
> trifulung – trituration, grinding, pounding, threshing

trope – tropere m. – a book containing verses sung at certain festivals before the Introit; One of the service books of the Church, which inheld the tropes (tropus cantus) [Late Latin troparium, from Latin tropus, from Greek tropos ‘turn, way, trope’, from trepein ‘to turn’]

trout – trūht – trout [from late Latin tructa, from on Greek trōgein ‘gnaw’] LOE

trowel - trull, turl – trowel, scoop, ladle [from Latin trulla ‘scoop’, littling of trua ‘skimmer’]

tube, tuba – tube f. –  trumpet [from Latin tuba]

tuft – þūf m.  – tuft, crest of a helm, banner, standard, crest [¿L. tufa? … Skeat calls it Teut.]
> þufe – bushy
> þuft – a place full of bushes

tun, ton – tunne f. – barrel, cask [Teutonish, upspring is ungewiss, as both the low Latin tunna and Celt. tunna shapes are alike; there is also the OSwed shape þyn. Likely akin to OE tun ‘town’ as this word first meant enclosure, fence. Kluge and the OED call it likely of Celt. upspring.] … whence also tunnel.

tunic – tunece f. – under-garment, tunic, coat, toga [from Latin tunica, unknown rise]

turn – turnian, tyrnan – to turn, revolve. [Teutonish, from Latin tornare, from tornus ‘lathe’, from Greek tornos ‘lathe, circular movement’ (Skeat calls the Latin akin to but not from the Greek)] or all three are from an IE root. … same root for tour, torque (see torcul abuv)
> betyrnan – to turn round, return: prostrate oneself
> turngeat n. – turn-gate, turnstile
> turnigendlic – revolving
> turnung f. – rotation, turning, tourney?
> tyrning (u) f. – turning round, rotation; rotundity, roundness; crookedness, deceit

turtle – turtla m., turtur m., turture f., turtle f. – turtle-dove [L. turtur]


uvula – ūf, hūf m. – uvula [mayhap, from Latin uva ‘grape’, uvula itself is from late Latin, littling of Latin uva] … ūf also means owl from another root.


verse – fers nm. – verse: sentence [L. versus ‘a turn of the plow, a furrow, a line of writing’, from vertere ‘to turn’] … whence also versus

viper – vīpere, uīpere f. – viper [from Latin vipera, from vivus ‘alive’ + parere ‘bring forth’; the snake ‘that produces living young’; Thus vipera is short for vivipara, fem, of viviparus; whence also viviparous and wyvern] LOE?

vesper – vesper, uesper – vesper [from Latin vesper ‘evening (star)’, which is akin to Greek hesperos ‘western; the evening star’ … whence Hesperus ‘Venus’; also akin to English west ] … Vesperum ðæt ys ǣfen oððe hrepsung, Anglia viii. 319, 28. (Here and another time it seems to be oversetting.)

vocativ – vocativa – vocative [Latin vocativus, from vocare ‘to call’] … þa pronomina, þe habbaþ vocativum, þá habbaþ six casus … the pronouns which have a vocativ, then have six cases


wall – weall I. (a, æ) m. – wall, dike, earthwork, rampart, dam [Teutonish, liken Ger. Wall ‘rampart’, in the meaning of rampart or earthworks, likely from or a blend with L. vallum ‘rampart’, from vallus ‘stake’; however a the wall of a house is likely a befuddling or blend from OE wag, wæg, wah,  whence ME wah, wawe, wowe (for saying wowe, liken ME wowen = today’s woo); to say wah or wawe would sound like wau or wall. ] 

Wight – Wiht f. – Isle of Wight [L. Vecta or Vectis]??? … not wiht meaning wight, that’s another word.

wine – wīn n. – wine [erly Teutonish; mayhap rooted on Latin vinum or more likely from an IE root … Kluge writes: There is no phonological evidence to show that the word was borrowed. The assumption that it was adopted from Lat. vinum …, is probable from the accounts of ancient writers. … p385, Wein; if not, ther is sum thought that the upspring is semetic.]
> wīnsester m. – wine-vessel [L. sextarius]


zone – zona – zone [from Latin zona ‘girdl’, from Greek zōnē ] … We hátaþ on léden quinque zonas ðæt synd fíf gyrdlas - we hight them in Latin quinque zonas, that is five girdls … This is only showing the Latin word before setting it into English, not truly noting the word in English.


Onhenge A 
Old English words [E thru Z] of Teutonish/Teutonish stock that hav share'd roots with the Latin word or near meanings and look much like a Latin word.

eax, ex, æx, e; f. – axis, axle-tree  [Dut. as, f: Ger. achse, axe, f; MHGer. ahse, f: OHGer. ahsa. f; Dan. axe. m. f; Swed. axel, m; Icel. axull, öxull, m; öxul-tré, n: Lat. axis, m: Grk. αξων, m: Lith. aszis, f: Sansk. aksha the axle of a wheel, a wheel, car.], likely from IE root *akso-
> eaxel, eaxl, exl, e; f: eaxle – shoulder, axle [Teutonish, O. Sax. ahsla, f: O. Frs. axle, axele, f: Ger. achsel, f: MHGer. ahsel, f: OHGer. ahsala, f: Goth. amsa, m: Dan. axel, m. f: Swed. axel, m: Icel. öxl, f: Lat. axilla, f.], littling of eax.

eormenenorm, ernormus, huge, universal, whole, general, great [mainly seen as a forefast: eormen- ; Teutonish O. Sax. irmin- : Icel. jörmun-] (liken Latin enormis ‘unusual, huge’) … Ofer eormengrund - over the spacious earth … Beowulf

fæcele f. – a torch [Teutonish, akin to but NOT from Latin facula … Kluge, p78, Fackel] 

fell n. – fell, skin, hide [Teutonish, IE shared by Latin pellis (whence pelt)]

hænep, henep m.  hemp [Teutonish, Icel. hampr : OHGer. hanaf : Ger. hanf: OSlov. konoplja: Lith. kanépes, Persian kanab] akin to Lat. cannabis, from Grk. κάνναβιs ‘kannibis’, mayhap from Persian kanab… Kluge says the thought that it is borrow'd from Latin or Greek is "untenable"  (p135)

hos f. – host, company, band : Mid mægþa hose – with a band of maidens, Beowulf [Goth. hansa multitudo: OHGer. hansa cohors: liken Ger. Hanse put to a fellowship of towns.] … more likely the true root of English host

irre n. – anger, wrath, ire, rage [from urGmc *irziá-, from PIE *ares- ] … said to be another root than Latin ire but, in the end, the same meaning

lafianto lave, bathe, pour water on [mayhap akin to lap (OE lapian), there is, however, no link to Lat. lavare, Gr. λουειν … Kluge, p201, laben]

lesan; p. læs; pl. lǽson; pp. lesen To lease [ = glean dialect.], gather, collect  [Teutonish, Goth. lisan: O. Sax. lesan: O. L. Ger. lesan to read: O. Frs. lesa: Icel. lesa: O. H. Ger. lesan legere, colligere: Ger. lesen] … Kluge writes: AS. lesan, simply mean 'to gather, collect' ; from the latter E. to lease is derived. … p214, lesen

logianto lodge, embed, place, put by; put in order, arrange; discourse; divide, portion out. …  +l. ûp – lay by, deposit. 
> gelogian – regulate
> gelogod spræc – (well)-order'd speech, style
> gelogung f. – order
> logþer – plotting, cunning, artful

mægermeager, lean [Teutonish, Icel. magr: Dan., Swed., Da. mager: OHGer. magar: Ger. mager / Latin macer: Greek makethnos all likely from IE root *māk]

manian, manigean, monian; p. ode. I. bring to mind what ought to be done, warn, urge upon one what ought to be done, admonish, exhort, incite, instigate  II. bring to mind what should not be forgotten, remind, suggest, prompt  III. mandate, to tell what ought to be done, to teach, instruct, advise  IV. claim what is due; demand — Hwane manaþ God maran gafoles þonne þone biscop … Of whom will God demand more tribute than of the bishop? [oddly enuff, this does not share an IE root with Latin mandare ‘mandate’ from manus ‘hand’ + dare ‘give’ but rather with Latin reminiscor ‘reminisce’ and monere ‘warn’ from the IE root *mon, *men]

mere, mære mf. – sea, lake, pool, sistern, mere [from UrTeutonic *mari, from Indo-European *móri IE shared by Latin mare ‘sea’] … 

metan; p. mæt, pl. mǽton; pp. meten. I. to mete, measure II. to measure out, mark off, assign the bounds of a place III. to measure by paces, to traverse, pass over IV. to measure one thing by or with another, to compare [Goth. mitan: OLGer. metan: OFrs. Icel. meta: OHGer. mezan : Ger. messen … Kluge writes: The Teut. stem mēt, ‘to measure, estimate, ponder’ … is based on pre-Teut. mēd, and cannot, because of the non-permutation, be connected with Lat. metiri; comp. Lat. modus, … Lat. modius, Goth. mitaþs, ‘corn measure’. … p235, messen]
> meter n. – meter, one who metes or measures

ord, es ; m. I. a point, topmost, head  II. line of battle, rank, row, forefront  III. the beginning, origin, source; liken Latin ordo, ordin- ‘row, series, rank’; the rise of Latin ordo is murky.

sealf, e: salf, sealfe, an; f. Salve, ointment [from ur-Teut. *salba]

scrūtnian, scrūdnianto scrutinize, examine, consider [(urTeut. *skrūdan) from the Indo-European root *skreu-, liken OHG scrutilon (scrodon/sruton); root shared with Latin scrutari ‘to search, sort trash’, from scruta ‘trash’]  
> scrūtnere – scrutineer, examiner, investigator
> scrūtnung, scrūdung f. – scrutiny, search, investigation, examination, inquiry … liken the way of saying scrutiny (from the OED): 'skro͞otn-ē 

spadu (æ) f. – ‘spadeʼ [Teutonish; akin to Dutch spade, German Spaten, also akin to, but not from, Latin spatha from Greek spathē ‘blade, paddle’; all from an IE root *spa ‘to draw out, extend’, whence also span, spatula]

swēte sweet [Teutonish, akin to Dutch zoet,German süss, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin suavis and Greek hēdus]

træglianto pluck, pull, trail …  Kluge writes: On account of Fr. trailler ‘to pull’, which is probably a corresponding term, treideln has been supposed to be connected with Lat. trahere. There is no need, however, to ascribe the cognates to a non-Teut. origin. … p 367, treideln

trahtian, trahtnianI. to expound, explain II. to discuss III. to compose a treatise IV. to deal with a subject, consider [Teutonish, "The genuine Teut. origin of OHG. trahton is undoubted …" Kluge, p365, tracten ]

wasp – wæps m. – wasp [from an Indo-European root shared by Latin vespa; may be akin to weave (from the weblike form of its nest).]

wicWICK, dwelling-place, lodging, habitation, house, mansion,; village, town; in pl. entrenchments, camp, castle, fortress: street, lane: bay, creek. [Many mistakenly think is comes from Latin vicus, I can find no reason to think this. This word is widespred from the IE root *wik.]

Onhenge B 

Arthur’s English—Old Norse
Bosworth-Toller’s Old English 
Clarkʼs Concise Anglo-Saxon
Kluge’s Etymological Dict. of German
Skeat’s Etymological Dict. of English
Wedgwood’s Dict. of English Etymology, Vol 1 A-D
Zoëga’s Concise Old Icelandic

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